Low-Energy Electron Accelerator workshop

- Project Review
- Introduction of the Project Leaders
- Industrial Purpose
- Gamma-Ray Irradiation Facilites
- Papers for Project Outcome
- FNCA Guideline on Development of Hydrogel and Oligosaccharides by Radiation Processing (PDF)
- FNCA Guideline on Chitosan PGP Application for Rice, Chilli and Other Crops (PDF)


FNCA 2005 Workshop

Summary Report of FNCA 2005 Workshop
on Application of Electron Accelerator
- EB treatment of Wastewater-

14 - 18 November 2005, INTEC/KAERI, Daejeon, Korea


    This workshop was co-sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Korea . The workshop was jointly organized by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). It was held at INTEC, KAERI, Daejeon , Korea . The main objectives of the workshop were to discuss status of utilization of electron accelerator for wastewater treatment in the FNCA participating countries, to finalize the evaluation report of the current phase FNCA related project and to prepare future project proposal for 2006-2008 .

    This is the fifth workshop of the FNCA project on the Application of Electron Accelerator. The main objective of the project is to develop new technology using low energy electron beam (EB) irradiation system, which has a variety of applications and good safety feature, and to demonstrate its application. A self-shielded low energy accelerator system needs an initial investment much lower than a Co-60 facility. Its operation is simple and safe. The system can be applied in various fields such as radiation processing, environmental conservation, etc. This project was organized with the participation of eight FNCA countries.

    The workshop was attended by experts on application of electron accelerator from the participating countries: China (1), Indonesia (1), Japan (7), Korea (17), Malaysia (2), the Philippines (1), Thailand (1) and Vietnam (1). Annex 1 shows the list of participants.

    On the first day, a National Executive Management Seminar on Application of Electron Accelerators was held and attended by 45 participants from industries, universities and research institutes and members of FNCA Workshop. The welcoming address was delivered by Dr. Byung Joo Min, Director of Nuclear Training Center, KAERI. The opening address was delivered by Dr. Jong Bae Choi, Director of Atomic Energy Cooperation Division, MOST and followed by Ms. Miwako Shimizu, International Cooperation, Atomic Energy Division of MEXT, Japan . Ms. Shimizu expressed her thanks to Korea , the host country, for the warm welcome and hospitality rendered to the participants.

    The seminar was officiated by Dr. Il Hiun Kook, Vice President of KAERI with his congratulatory address. He welcomed all the participants and conveyed the Korean Government support for the activities of the FNCA.

    The program of the national seminar is given in Annex 2.

    The FNCA 2005 workshop was officiated by Dr. Myun Joo Lee, Project Manager of Environmental Application, KAERI. The workshop program was briefed and adopted without any amendment.

    Dr. T. Kume, FNCA project leader of Japan on the Application of Electron Accelerator presented an outline of the FNCA EB Project that includes the progress of FNCA activities since the previous FNCA 2004 workshop held on 6-10 September, Beijing, China. He informed that the 7th FNCA Coordinators Meeting would be held in Tokyo , Japan in March 2006 to discuss amongst other things the evaluation report of the Application of Electron Accelerator Project that has to be finalized during the current FNCA 2005 workshop.

    The workshop consisted of two invited papers, country reports, technical visit to electron beam treatment facility at Daegu Textile Dyeing wastewater treatment plant, evaluation of on-going project and discussion on future plans and new activities. The program of the workshop is given in Annex 3.


    Dr. Jo-Chun Kim, Konkuk University , Korea , presented a paper entitled "An Emerging Technology using Electron Beam and Catalyst for VOC Control". A study on treatment of volatile organic compounds using e-beam system alone and a hybrid (e-beam together with catalysts) system have been introduced. The study showed that e-beam decomposed more effectively unsaturated compounds, whereas, catalyst decomposed saturated compounds. Hence, the hybrid system provides simultaneous removal of unsaturated and saturated compounds and decreases the production of undesirable degradation by-products.

    Another paper entitled "Electron Beam Application on Wastewater in Malaysia " was presented by Dr. Zulkafli Ghazali, MINT, Malaysia . The paper described past and present works that have been carried out in relation to E-beam treatment of drinking water and wastewater, scenario of water demand and the future application of E-beam to complement the growth of water demand in Malaysia . Earlier work using gamma radiation has been shown to be a success in reducing color and turbidity of textile wastewater. The paper also outlined the plan that is being undertaken by MINT on techno-economic feasibility study for the recycling of industrial wastewater using EB technology in collaboration with a public listed company that specialize in wastewater engineering.

    A brief presentation on the IAEA and RCA related activities was given by Dr. John Chung from RCA Regional Office, Korea . He has expressed the wish of RCA Representative meeting for RCA to work closely with FNCA and to avoid duplication of activities.


    A total of 8 country reports on the current status of application of electron accelerator, especially on wastewater treatment, in the participating countries were presented. The participants had the opportunity to discuss, exchange opinions and share their experiences on issues related to radiation processing and utilization of electron accelerators for wastewater treatment. The summary of the reports were as follows:


    Research on E-beam treatment of wastewater is being carried out at several institutes and universities in China . Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering ( IEPE, CAEP) is planning to set a project to treat metallurgic industrial wastewater . Although, E -beam treatment of flue gases has been commercialized, research is still continue to reduce further VOCs, fine particle and CO 2 emission. For E-beam processing of natural polymer, several projects on development of hydrogel and irradiation of latex are being carried out at several institutes and universities. A pilot plant is being built for the production of oligo chitosan.


    The most common kinds of waste can be classified into four types i.e., industrial, agricultural, municipal, and nuclear waste . Soil, air and water have been commonly used as media or sites for the disposal of all these wastes and can cause contamination. Remediation of contaminated sites can be achieved in several ways i.e., physical, chemical, biological, and radiation. The use of electron beam for wastewater treatment still needs technical and economical assessment. The handicaps mainly for technical reason such as limited penetration, and economic reason comes from higher cost of treatment. Research and development are still needed for better process. Combination with other methods such as the use of ozone, biological and other conventional method gives better result either technically or economically point of view .


    Radiation treatment of wastewater had been studied in combination of EB with biological, coagulation and ozone treatments mainly in 1990s. The EB treatment effectively reduced TOC and BOD values, the concentration of dye and the survival number of E. coli in wastewater. The cost evaluation was made on fountain-type EB irradiation process for wastewater. A mobile sludge treatment car with the deodorization system using EB is now used at 8 wastewater treatment facilities in Ishikawa prefecture from 2004. The laboratory scale studies are in progress on the elimination of endocrine disrupting activity of estradiol and alkyl-phenols in wastewater, and on the decomposition/charging-removal of toxic volatile organic compounds in flue gas.


    Four major projects in relation to wastewater treatment were being carried out, namely, disinfection of total coli-forms in unchlorinated secondary effluent, removal of color in dyeing wastewater and feasibility test to control algal bloom by using electron beam and treatment of groundwater polluted by TCE and PCE using gamma rays. Pilot plant operation and commercial construction of E-beam treatment of textile dyeing wastewater was presented. Several studies on radiation processing of natural polymer for medical applications were also reported.


    The application of electron accelerator in Malaysia is focused on the utilization of natural polymer such as natural rubber, natural rubber latex, palm oil and polysaccharide for healthcare, cosmetic and industrial applications. Sago hydrogel for beauty mask and wound dressing has been commercialized. Bio-foam, bio-film, palm oil based acrylate resins and thermoplastic natural rubber compounds are amongst the products that are ready for commercialization. The increasing concern and protection of environment, lead to several studies on electron beam treatment of flue gases, volatile organic compounds, industrial wastewater and agro waste being introduced in Malaysia . The general concept in relation to waste that are "recycling", "reuse", "recover" and "reduce" is becoming an important factor for future technological development and commercial exploitation.

    The Philippines

    The Philippines has recently passed the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004. It is expected that more stringent standards will be established. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) has initiated a collaborative research program which will focus on the following applications of radiation: breakdown of recalcitrant compounds in alcohol distillery effluents, azo dye degradation in textile wastewater and hygienization of sludge from septage tank. Products like hydrogel for burn/wound, bedsore and ulcer dressings, radiation dose indicators, hemostatic materials, and plant growth promoters have been developed from radiation processing of carrageenan. Hydrogel for wound dressing has been developed at pilot scale. The pilot plant, at optimum operation, produces 200 pieces of hydrogel dressing per day.


    Preliminary study of treatment of wastewater from different sources by gamma radiation was carried out with the aim to disinfect harmful bacteria and fading the color in wastewater. Preparation and characterization of poly (hydroxamic acid) chelating resin from poly (methylacrylate)-grafted-cassava starch via gamma radiation and cross-linked carboxymethyl cassava starch for heavy metal ion removal were studied. Evaluation of the PVA/Silk fibroin hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation on wound healing in dogs was investigated with positive result. Products of gamma degradation of silk in the form of soap have been commercialized. A combination technique of chemical and radiation processing was used to produce oligo-chitosan at a competitive cost.


    Vietnam recorded remarkable achievements in R&D of radiation processing using gamma-rays for environment, healthcare and agriculture related applications such as food-irradiation, radiation sterilizations, plant growing promoter, wound dressing, and super-absorbent. Electron accelerator with energy of 10 MeV and power of 10-15 kW for R&D activities such as wastewater treatment, radiation modification of natural polymers and services is to be established in the near future and in operation by middle of 2007.


    Workshop participants visited t extile dyeing wastewater treatment plant in Daegu. They were received by the DyeTec staff, Dr. Jang-Seung Choi and were briefed on the setup and operation of the complex. The participants were very much impressed with the new construction of electron beam treatment facility of 1.0 MeV, 400 mA for the treatment of 10,000 m3 /day wastewater which is expected to be commissioned before end of 2005. They also visited the pilot plant E-beam textile wastewater treatment facility of 1.0 MeV, 40 mA for 1,000 m3 /day wastewater located in the same complex.


    Each participating members presented their evaluation report. Based on the participating member evaluation reports and on the outcome of the FNCA 2004 workshop, an overall evaluation of the project was summarized and presented by Dr. T. Kume. The members acknowledged several major outputs of the projects, among others, the commercialization of several products from e-beam processing of hydrogels based on natural polymer and its derivatives in Japan and Malaysia, the successful application of e-beam degraded natural polymer in agriculture in Japan, the successful commercialization of e-beam treatment of flue gases in China and e-beam treatment of textile dyeing wastewater in Korea.

    In some participating member countries that did not have e-beam facility, gamma irradiation has been used. Some of products have been commercialized in Indonesia , Philippines , Thailand and Vietnam .

    Member countries are allowed to submit additional detail information in relation to the evaluation report to project leader and national coordinator of each country by the end of December 2005. The final evaluation report on the application of electron accelerator project is given in Annex 4.


    All participating member countries fully supported and proposed the continuation of existing program into the next phase, 2006-2008. In the next phase program, the use of e-beam is not limited to low energy but will be extended to include medium and high-energy electron beam machines. The title of the project has been agreed as follows:

    "Development of Electron Beam Processing in Healthcare, Medical and Environmental Applications"

    The project will now focus on the following research activities;
    1. Radiation degradation of natural polymers
    2. Radiation modification of polysaccharide and its derivatives
    3. Radiation treatment of wastewater

    Participants were requested to submit expected outcome of the research activities on natural polymers and wastewater during next three years, 2006-2008, to the project leader, Dr. Kume by the end of December 2005. It is expected that each participating country will be able to produce tangible products from natural polymers that have potential to be commercialized. In the case of wastewater, it is expected that each participating country to reduce the level of pollution to meet the standards set out by the regulatory body in each country.

    The detail project proposal for the next phase that include backgrounds, objectives, project period, subjects and participating countries, work plan, availability of e-beam facilities and expected output is given in Annex 5.

    The current research activities on E-beam treatment of flue gases will not be continued. However, the participating member countries acknowledged the importance of exchange of information on new development and progress in relation to E-beam treatment of flue gases and VOC.

    Project schedule for the next three years, 2006-2008 has been discussed and agreed upon as shown in Annex 6.

    The participants expressed their sincere gratitude to the organizers and the host institute for a well-organized workshop and for their hospitality.

page top↑

Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia