This workshop was co-sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan and China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA). The workshop was jointly organized by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), CAEA and Institute of Modern Physics / Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP-CAS). It was held at Prime Hotel, Beijing, China. The main objective of the workshop was to discuss status of utilization of electron accelerator for flue gas treatment in the FNCA participating countries and to formulate future program.
This is the fourth workshop of the FNCA project on Application of Electron Accelerator. The main objective of the project is to develop new technology using low energy electron beam (EB) irradiation system, which has a variety of applications and good safety feature, and to demonstrate its applications. A self-shielded low energy accelerator system needs an initial investment much lower than a Co-60 facility. Its operation is simple and safe. The system can be applied in various fields such as radiation processing, environmental conservation, etc. This project was organized with the participation of eight FNCA countries.
The workshop was attended by experts on application of electron accelerator from the participating countries: China (9), Indonesia (1), Japan (10), Korea (1), Malaysia (3), the Philippines (1), Thailand (1) and Vietnam (1). Annex 1 shows the list of participants.
On the first day, a National Executive Management Seminar on Application of Electron Accelerators was held and attended by 67 participants from industries, universities and research institutes and members of FNCA Workshop. The opening address was delivered by Mr. Shintaro Hara, Unit Chief of International Cooperation, Atomic Energy Division, MEXT, Japan. Mr. Hara expressed his thanks to China, the host country, for the warm welcome and hospitality rendered to the participants. He mentioned that FNCA has been a valuable mechanism for cooperation in nuclear applications.
The seminar was officiated by Mr. Wei Huang, the Deputy Director, Department of International Cooperation, CAEA. He welcomed all the participants and conveyed the Government support for the activities of the FNCA. China considers that FNCA is one of the fora that have successfully fostered close cooperation among the countries in this region, in particular in nuclear science and technology. In closing, he expressed his best wishes for a successful seminar and renewed his commitment to support FNCA.
Dr. Sueo Machi, Commissioner, Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, gave a lecture on world perspective on radiation and isotope application.
There were seven lectures on current status and development of electron accelerator and processing, application for flue gas treatment, functional polymers, nano-technology, and vulcanization of natural rubber latex.
The FNCA EB workshop was officiated by Prof. Wenlong Zhan, Director, IMP-CAS.
Dr. Sueo Machi, FNCA Coordinator of Japan, presented the progress of FNCA activities in fiscal year 2003. He informed that the 4th Ministerial Meeting was held in Okinawa, Japan on 2-3 December 2003 to discuss on "enhancement of socio-economic impact of radiation and radioisotope application" and "sustainable development of nuclear energy." The 5th Coordinator Meeting was held in Japan, 2 - 4 March 2004. All 11 projects have been implemented nearly as planned. The progress of the eleven projects was reported in the meeting.
Dr. Tamikazu Kume, JAERI, the Japan project leader of the Application of Electron Accelerator presented an outline of the FNCA EB Project. He reiterated that the project's goals are wider application of electron accelerator and implementation of practical applications for the benefit of the participating countries through information exchange and joint research work. The activities in the year 2003 were reported.
The workshop consisted of two invited papers, country reports, technical visit to electron beam facility of flue gas treatment, discussion of future plans and new activities.
- INVITED PAPERS
Dr. Min Ren, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) presented a paper entitled "EB treatment of flue gases."
CAEP has developed independently an EB processing technology for desulfurization and denitration of flue gas in China. It has low engineering investment and wide application scope without second pollution to the environment so that it is a kind of advanced pollution control technology, realizing comprehensive utilization of sulphur and nitrogen resources for natural ecosystem. The process system and performance test of the pilot plant are briefly reported. This flue gas desulfurization demonstration installation designed by CAEP is applied in Beijing Jingfeng Thermal Power Co., Ltd.
Another paper entitled "Electron Accelerators and Dosimetry in Flue Gas Treatment" was presented by Mr. Hiromi Sunaga, JAERI. Various aspects of EB flue gas treatment, including an outline of research and development in Japan, the requirements placed on electron accelerators and methods of dosimetry have been introduced. A gradual scale-up in demonstration plant has been performed and the usefulness in environmental conservation became apparent. The progress related to electron accelerator design such as enlargement of beam output power, stability in long time continuous operation, low running cost and low price is important for future practical applications of this technology. Some experiments about dosimetry were shown.
- COUNTRY REPORTS
A total of 8 country reports on the current status of application of electron accelerator, especially on flue gas treatment, in the participating countries were presented. The participants had the opportunity to discuss, exchange opinions and share their experiences on issues related to radiation processing and utilization of low energy electron accelerators for flue gas treatment. The summary of the reports were as follows:
Coal is the main energy resource supplying three quarters of Chinese primary energy consumption. The amount of sulfur oxides emission is around 20 million tons per year. Electron beam Ammonia (EBA) technology is one of the priority development technologies for desulfurization in the guidebook of Advanced Technology Industry by the State Council of China.
In 1985, the EB technology for reduction of SO2 & NOx from flue gas has been developed at laboratory scale (25 Nm3/h) in Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research. Tsinghua University and CAEP have completed the development of EBA technology at pilot scale (10,000 - 12,000 Nm3/h) at the beginning of 21st century. They have done some improvement such as semi-dry method to save energy of EB and in the collection of by-products.
The Japanese company, Ebara has built a commercial-scale facility in Chengdu thermal power plant in 1995. Following this, Ebara-Guohua Corporation constructed a commercial scale facility in Hangzhou Xielian thermal Co. Ltd in 2002. Another industry-scale (630, 000 Nm3/h) facility to remove SO2 & NOx from flue gas by electron beam is under construction at Jingfeng thermal plant in Beijing.
The key equipment of EBA technology is high power electron accelerator. In view of this, a pilot scale accelerator of 600 keV, 260 mA has been built in the laboratory of Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS. Another high power electron accelerator of 1.5 MeV with 300 mA is under construction by IMP-CAS.
The main energy resources in Indonesia are coal and oil. The emission of SO2 and NOx is the main source of atmospheric pollutions. Based on the Government Environmental Standard (in 2000), 90 % of coal power plants would continue to emit SO2 higher than this 2000 environment standard. This condition caused a serious problem for coal burning power plants. To reduce the flue gas problem, BATAN with the cooperation of the Indonesia Power Company (the biggest owner of coal power plant in Indonesia) will develop a demonstration plant of EB flue gas treatment in Suralaya Coal Power Plant for reducing SO2 and NOx emission in 2005 - 2006.
The main purpose is to show that EB flue gas treatment is competitive and has lower cost than conventional technology of flue gas treatment. The success of EB flue gas treatment demonstration plant development in 2005 in Indonesia will have a very important role in the implementation of nuclear technology especially in the application of electron accelerator. Until now Indonesia has only one FGD conventional treatment facility that is located in East of Java and owned by a private company.
There are two reports that have been presented, namely, flue gas treatment and progress of the on-going project on natural polymers. Various aspects of EB flue gas treatment, including progress necessary and dosimetry, have been outlined. Meanwhile, the kinetics of radiation chemistry of polysaccharides and their derivatives has been studied by means of electron beam pulse radiolysis that utilizes a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator. Rate constants between the natural polymers and hydrated electron or hydroxy radical were evaluated. The study is planned to expand from cellulose, chitin, chitosan, and their carboxymethyl derivatives to cellobiose and glucose.
Concern on VOCs emission from industrial complex area as well as SOx and NOx from power station is increasing in Korea.
Research and development on the use of electron accelerator for environmental conservation in Korea have covered water and wastewater treatment, control of air pollutants and wastes treatment.
A study of pilot scale on treatment of flue gases was almost finished and its results have shown successful achievement compared to conventional existing techniques. Efforts are underway to find proper end-users. Regarding the removal of VOCs, a combination technique with radiation and other existing technique have been intensively studied in order to find a way to minimize the economical disadvantage over the conventional techniques established.
An advanced research center for radiation application is under construction and it will be opened in the beginning of 2005. Researches on food irradiation, environmental conservation and R&D activities will be carried out with the opening of advanced research center. Several irradiators are going to be installed including two electron accelerators (10 MeV and 2 MeV).
A laboratory scale test rig to treat simulated flue gas using electron beam technology has been installed at the ALURTRON EB-Irradiation Center, MINT under the research cooperation program between MINT and a utility company, TNB Research Sdn. Bhd. This study was conducted on the request of the utility company with the purpose to acquire hands-on experience and know how on the EB technology for treatment of flue gases.
The test rig system consisted of several components, among other, two units of diesel generator sets, gas analyzers and spray cooler were installed. The flue gas generated from the diesel generator was mainly NOx. SO2 and NH4 were added into the system. Results from the commissioning test runs and subsequent experimental work showed successful removal of flue gas using electron accelerator at 1.0 MeV. However, more convincing efforts are required to promote the usage of EB technology for treatment of flue gases among the power utility companies in Malaysia.
MINT has also conducted study on electron beam treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by using benzene gases. Benzene is one of the most stable organic compounds. Benzene at low concentration of 1.0 ppmv to 100 ppmv was shown to be easily destructed using electron beam irradiation. Further research on EB treatment of VOCs generated from the incinerator plant is planned.
The Philippines possesses substantial indigenous energy resources such as coal, geothermal, oil, natural gas and hydropower. A large bulk of resources comes from coal comprising 33 % of the total power generation mix. It has a total of 11 units with an installed capacity of 3,060 MW. The projected power capacity in 2004 - 2013 will be 21,034 MW with 4,158 MW coming from coal and 2,542 MW from oil-based sources. With the increasing industrialization in the Philippines, it is evident that serious problems of air pollution will be bound to happen unless proper measures are undertaken.
Binary-polysaccharide based hydrogels from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) blended with kappa carrageenan (KC) were prepared. The hydrogel blends showed characteristic property of increased tensile strength with increasing carrageenan content. Gel fractions were not significantly affected up to a KC content of 5 % and 2.5 % for CMC-KC and HPC-KC blends, respectively. Swelling behavior decreased with increasing KC content. HPC-KC blends exhibited two LCSTS.
Electricity is generated primarily from burning fossil fuels such as lignite, oil and natural gas. Fossil fuel - based electricity generation results in significant emissions of PM, SO2, and CO2. A critical problem for power plants in Thailand a decade ago was excessive SO2 emissions of the plants operated in Mae Moh Valley in north of Thailand by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). In 1992 the situation reached crisis levels when the ambient an-hour average SO2 concentration level hit 3,418 µg/m3, more than four times the current standard of 780 µg/m3. From pollution crisis, desulfurization technology has been progressively installed at power plants, which has resulted in declining level of ambient SO2 in Mae Moh. Since this incident, all coal - fired power plant, regardless of the level of sulfur in the coal or the location of the plant, appear to require desulfurization scrubbers. Until now Thailand dose not has any plan of EB flue gas treatment.
For the development of Electron Beam Facilities, research and application of 30-MeV linac with 5-MW microwave systems was carried out at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF) of Chiang Mai University. Research works on Polyvinyl Alcohol/Silk Fibroin blend hydrogel by Gamma Radiation has been carried out. Water vapor permeability studies and bacterial growth suppression of irradiated PVA/SF blend hydrogel were investigated. The synthesis and characterization of PVP-Grafted-Starch hydrogels using gamma radiation was also investigated.
The problem of flue gases discarded from coal-fired electricity power plants and the project progress in the period of 2003 - 2004 in Vietnam was reported.
The survey of the present status and development of electricity and standards of industrial emission and ambient air quality in Vietnam has been carried out. The results of the survey show that in the next five years the energy source from coal-fired power plants will share near to 19 % of the total electricity generation in Vietnam. At present the problem of pollution caused by coal-, oil- and gas-fired power plants is still not critical yet. However, it is the time to prepare staff and technology for application of electron accelerator for flue gas treatment.
In the period of 2003 - 2004, Vietnam has developed four main products that are commercialized or close to commercialization. Firstly, two plant protectors, STOP 5DD and GOLD RICE have been developed and commercialized. Secondly, super water absorbent was prepared by grafting acrylic acid and paste-like starch under gamma irradiation. The production of the absorbent is expected to get production permission from Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in the next year. Thirdly, hydrogel wound dressing has been developed. The product is in the stage of clinic test and is expected to commercialize next year. Lastly, the technology for treatment of wastewater from rubber-processing factories is under field test.
- TECHNICAL VISIT
Workshop participants visited China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) and Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University. They were very much impressed with the work carried out on electron beam facility for flue gas treatment at Tsinghua University on the reduction of electron beam energy and improvement on the collection of fertilizers by-products.
- FUTURE WORK PLAN FOR 2004 - 2005
The revised work plan
of the FNCA project on the Applications of Low Energy
Electron Accelerator was presented by Dr. Kume (Annex
4). It was agreed that the next workshop would be held
in November 2005 in Korea. The main topic will be on
EB treatment of wastewater. All member countries are
requested to carry out the preliminary survey on the
potential needs of EB treatment of water in their countries.
- PRELIMINARY EVALUATION
OF CURRENT PROJECT
A preliminary evaluation of the current project was carried out by the FNCA workshop participants based on the objectives of the project, which are as follows:
-To develop new technology of using low energy electron accelerator irradiation system for liquid, thin film and gases
·-To develop and demonstrate its applications
However, the final evaluation will be carried out during the workshop in 2005.
In this preliminary evaluation, the status of projects in each participating countries were determined based on the stage of commercialization or of near commercialization which are as follows;
I. Radiation degradation of liquid natural polymer
(i) Application of radiation (gamma) degradation alginate and chitosan as plant promoter has been carried out and fruits/plant protectors have been commercialized in Vietnam.
(ii) Application of EB irradiation of alginate has been carried out in Japan but not yet commercialized
(iii) Chemical degradation of chitosan has been commercialized for plant promoter in Thailand.
II. Radiation crosslinking of thin film/sheet of natural polymer
(iv) Application of radiation (gamma) crosslinking of paste-like starch and acrylic acid as super water absorbent for potted ornamental plant is being commercialized in Vietnam
(v) Radiation (EB) crosslinking of thin film/sheet hydrogel using CMC for bed sore has been commercialized in Japan
(vi)Radiation (EB) crosslinking of CMC and CMS dry gel for application on excrement treatment has been commercialized in Japan
(vii) Radiation (EB) crosslinking of thin film/sheet of agar hydrogel and sago starch hydrogel for wound dressing and face mask respectively have been commercialized in Malaysia
(viii) Radiation (gamma) crosslinking of carrageenan hydrogel for wound dressing will be developed at a pilot scale in Philippines
(ix) Radiation (gamma) crosslinking of thin film/sheet of silk based hydrogel is at clinical test in Thailand.
(x) Radiation crosslinking (gamma) of thin film/sheet of chitosan hydrogel is at clinical test in Vietnam and (EB) Korea
III. Radiation treatment of flue gas
(xi) EB treatment of flue gas has been developed at the pilot scale in Japan and Korea.
(xii) EB treatment of flue gases is being commercialized in China.
IV. EB treatment of wastewater
(xiii) Radiation treatment of industrial wastewater is being commercialized in Korea.
Many countries expressed the importance of continuing the projects on electron beam processing of natural polymer, electron beam treatment of flue gas and of industrial wastewater.
This workshop commended the activity on public/open seminar as an important activity to promote the technology to end-users. Public/open seminar would continue to be part of the FNCA workshop program.
- NEW ACTIVITIES - Proposal
for the Phase 2, 2006 - 2008
Preliminary discussion on the new activities of the FNCA project on Application of Electron Accelerator was held based on the outcomes of the projects in the phase 1 as described in section 6. This workshop also noted that in the phase 2 of the FNCA project, the application of electron accelerator should not be limited only to low energy electron accelerator.
Following are the preliminary proposals of the project activities for phase 2 to be further considered by the member participating countries in the next workshop in 2005.
(1). To carry out comparison study on the technology/quality/ costing of degradation of natural polymer for plant promoters by using chemical, gamma and low energy electron accelerator.
(2). To develop the method of using low energy electron accelerator for crosslinking of hydrogel for wound dressing.
(3). To determine cost benefit of using EB for flue gas treatment including the improvement of the efficiency of flue gas processing and reduction in EB energy.
(4). To continue improvement of proper techniques using EB and in combination with other conventional methods for treatment of industrial wastewater from different pollutants.
(5). To study on EB treatment of organic waste
1. To set up low energy electron accelerator in a selected FNCA member country for
demonstration purposes - technical and economic feasibility.
2. To set up working groups which include end users
3. To consider funding from FNCA participating countries in relation to transportation
of EB machine, operation and maintenance of EB, research and experts mission.
This workshop proposed that China and Korea could consider accepting trainees from other member participating countries for studies in EB treatment of flue gas and wastewater.
The workshop agreed that projects based on natural polymer should be continued as one of the activities under the FNCA program on the application of electron accelerator.
The participants aware that cost benefit of radiation technology need to be looked at closely in making the proposal for the phase 2 FNCA projects. In addition, the future project should be market driven whereby direct linkage with end user is recommended.
The participants expressed their sincere gratitude to the organizers and the host institute for a well-organized workshop and for their hospitality.