SUMMARY REPORT OF THE 2002 FNCA WORKSHOP
ON THE UTILIZATION OF RESEARCH REACTORS
January 13 –17, 2003
This document presents a summary on the implementation of the 2002 FNCA Workshop on the Utilization of Research Reactors held in Jakarta/Serpong from January 13 to 17, 2003. The workshop discussed two different fields of activities, namely, Technetium Generator technology (TCG) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). It was attended by scientists and technical specialists from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. A summary of the discussions, progress reports and future programs of each group are presented below.
1. Workshop Report of Tc-99m Generator Group
In the 2002 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactors held in Serpong Indonesia, one delegate from each of China, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, five delegates from Japan were hosted by Indonesia to participate and promote the technology of Tc-99m generator using poly zirconium compound (PZC) as an adsorbent for neutron activated (n, γ) Mo-99.
1.1 Evaluation of the experiments conducted by each country
Following to the agreement of the workshop held in Beijing China in November 2001, PZC materials have been distributed to participating countries in April, August and October 2002 from Kaken Co. In the present workshop, the results of the experiments in terms of Mo-99 adsorption, Tc-99m elution and Mo-99 breakthrough were reported and discussed to evaluate the performance of PZC based Tc-99m generator. All data of the Mo-99 adsorption was fairly good and elution of Tc-99m was also reasonable. The Mo-99 breakthrough were also reasonable but suggested the second column of alumina adsorbent is necessary. In case the higher radioactive Mo-99 is loaded, use of saline containing oxidizing agent gives good elution rate and very low breakthrough of Mo-99.
The comments from each country for its result are as follows.
The experiments show that the PZC has a good adsorbing performance at 90℃ for 3 hours (enough adsorption capability to Mo, high adsorbing rate and very low desorption rate of Mo-99). However, the cause of lower elution rate is unknown at moment.
The performance of high-activity Mo-99 dry-bed generators loaded with a reaction product obtained by reacting PZC materials and neutron irradiated natural Mo in the molybdate form shows that the Tc-99m yields, Mo-99 breakthrough and radioactivity concentration meet the requirements for use in the labeling of radiopharmaceutical kits. The presence of a low-concentration oxidizing agent NaOCl during the elution step is necessary in order to maintain the high Tc-99m yields and low Mo-99 breakthrough. The future program is concerned in establishing quality control methods for total contents of Mo, Zr, and oxidizing agent in the eluate.
In order to use PZC as the adsorbent for the commercial supply of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator, the following problems should be taken into account:
||Attempts should be made to make granular insoluble product, which resists swelling and does not peptize in the presence of liquid. This will not only improve the flow rate but also reduce the chance of using peristaltic pump.
|| Suitable steps should be taken to improve the stability of the polymer after the absorption of Mo-99 with respect to its particle sizes and flow characteristics.
Elution profile for fourteen generators prepared show acceptable elution efficiency when compared with commercially available fission product Tc generators. Mo content is higher than specified by British Pharmacopea, which is should be less than 0.1%. In this case, second alumina column is required to reduce the Mo-99 breakthrough.
The results obtained for PZC, although limited in number of trials and the level of Mo activity loaded into the column, showed that the column holds promise as Mo column material for the generator. If the generator using this column can be available at lower than fission cost, it is reasonable to project an increasing utilization of Tc-99m in medical applications in the country.
The PZC could adsorb Mo-99 with high adsorption rate and Tc-99m was eluted with high efficiency but the contamination of Mo-99 was detected in the eluate. The problem of contamination of Mo-99 in the eluate was easily solved by passing the eluate through alumina column.
It is strongly believed that in the near future this technology will be established and utilized under the framework of the Forum of Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) which will benefit the countries operating small research reactors to overcome the difficulties in producing Mo-99/Tc-99m generator.
A good relationship between the Mo-content of adsorption solution and the Mo-adsorption capacity, adsorption percentage , Mo-breakthrough and Tc-99m elution yield was found. The preparation of PZC based Tc-99m chromatographic generator with 4 gram weight of PZC was successfully conducted. And a large number of interesting results were collected.
Table 1. Results of experiments conducted by each participating country
||10 ~500 Ci
1.2 Demonstration of PZC based Tc-99m generator
Demonstrative experiment was carried out during the present workshop as agreed in the 2001 Workshop in Beijing. The results of the experiments are summarized in Table 2 whereas the results of each countries’ are summarized in Table 1.
Two PZC column assemblies were prepared for the experiment. The results showed slightly lower Mo adsorption ratio which might be due to instability during storage of PZC material. The Tc-99m elution rate, however, was around 80% and breakthrough of Mo-99 in eluate was low enough to clear the criteria of medical application.
Table 2. Results of demonstration experiment*
* Oxidizing agent (NaOCl) is used in the elution step.
|| 311.8 mCi
|| 311.8 mCi
** Secondary column (alumina) is applied.
1.3 Work plan for 2003
1.3.1 Standardization of production procedure
Standardization of production procedure for PZC based Tc-99m generator should be studied and established for the activities in 2003. Draft of the procedure shall be made by Kaken and Project Leaders of Indonesia, Japan and Vietnam to be circulated to all participating countries for comments. In this connection, importance of the automatic Mo loading and column packing system which is planned to install in the cell of BATAN facility cooperated with Kaken was stressed.
1.3.2 Distribution of PZC material
Distribution of the PZC material will be continued for three times in the year 2003 for the experiment of Mo adsorbent PZC for Tc-99m generator with strictly standardized experimental procedure instruction as mentioned in 1.3.1. The amount of PZC material to be sent by Kaken Co. is 15 grams each time. For these experiments, use of secondary column of alumina and saline containing NaOCl for Tc-99m elution process will be compulsory.
1.3.3 Supply of (n, γ) Mo-99
China (NPIC), Indonesia (BATAN) and Korea (KAERI) can provide Mo-99 produced by irradiation of natural Mo-98 with free of charge except expense of container and transportation fee.
1.3.4 Comparison with the other generator
Comparison of technological aspects for production of PZC type Tc-99m generator is expected to be compiled by Indonesia for fission type generator whereas China and Vietnam for gel type generator.
1.3.5 Survey of the market of Tc-99m generator
The potential size of market of Tc-99m generator in terms of number of gamma cameras, number of tests for diagnosis, cost of the imported generators and system for the distribution of generators should be surveyed by project leaders of FNCA countries and compiled by Japanese Project Leader as early as possible.
1.3.6 Setting of Mo-99 loading/PZC column packing machine
An automated Mo-99 loading/PZC column packing machine is to be set in the hot cell facility of BATAN in cooperation between Kaken and BATAN.
1.4 Work plan for 2004
1.4.1 Labeling test
Table 3. Work Plan
Confirmation of quality of Tc-99m solution obtained from PZC generator through labeling test with various ligands
The work plans for 2003 and 2004 are summarized in Table 3.
||1)Standardization of production procedure
2) Distribution of PZC material
3) Supply of (n,y) Mo-99 in case of necessary
4)Comparison with the other type generators
5)Survey of the market of Tc-99m generator
6) Setting of Mo-99 loading system
|Japan, Indonesia, Vietnam
15 grams x 3 times, Japan
China, Indonesia, Korea
All participating countries
||1) Labeling test
||For Quality Assurance
1.4 Comments and suggestions
||In order to secure the supply of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in each country, a network among the FNCA countries is desirable to facilitate mutual supply of target materials and chemical reagents and also mutual use of reactors as well.
||Publication of the outcome resulted from the activities of Tc Generator Group should be done at least at the final stage of the workshop.
||It is hoped that FNCA sends a letter for each government to appeal the importance of setup of the automatic loading system in order to spread high quality PZC based Tc-99m generators.
||The Kaken Co, the manufacturer and patent holder of PZC material, presented the detailed plan of automatic Mo loading / PZC column packing machine as well as the future plan for realizing the Tc-99m generator production based on PZC technology.
It was also reported by Kaken Co that a joint-patent shared by Kaken Co and BATAN concerning the Mo-99/Tc-99m Generator System based on PZC materials with neutron irradiated natural molybdenum and the automatic Mo loading / PZC column packing machine was registered both in Japan in August 2002 and in Indonesia in November 2002.
||As the invited talks, the current status of production of fission Mo-99 and Tc-99m generator in Indonesia and a comparative study on the labeling of Tc-99m kits using fission type generator and PZC type generator were presented by BATAN Teknologi and BATAN, respectively. And also the experimental results of application of PZC to W-188/Re-188 generator was presented by JAERI.
||The FNCA coordinator of Japan made a lead-off speech on strategy for commercial application of Tc-99m generator produced by PZC Technology. In succession, the paper on the trend of Tc-99m generator in FNCA countries was presented by Japanese Project Leader and the plan for realizing the PZC generator was proposed by the President of Kaken Co.
2. WORKSHOP REPORT OF NAA GROUP
The 2002 FNCA workshop on utilization of research reactors for NAA group was held at Serpong, Indonesia on 13-17, January 2003, with participants from China, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. On the first day of the workshop, Prof. Tsunehiko Otoshi, Tohoku University of Community Service and Science presented a general lecture on neutron activation analysis entitled “NAA as Analytical Tool of Environmental Issue”.
This reports consists of three parts, (i) summaries of invited and country reports, (ii) summaries of demonstration of ko-method experiment and reports related with ko-softwares and (iii) future program.
2.1 SUMMARIES OF INVITED AND COUNTRY REPORTS
|| “Improving Air Quality in Indonesia Study of Fine and Coarse Particulates” by Dr. Puji Lestari of Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia. Fine and coarse portions of atmospheric particulates were collected in 5 locations in Bandung and their constituents were determined by NAA and other methods. Results indicate that the concentration of coarse particles increases in the daytime while there is no significant difference for fine particles between daytime and nighttime.
||“Current Status of Air Pollution Monitoring in Indonesia” by Ms.Novy Farhani of Environmental Management Center of Indonesia. The ambient air pollution monitoring network has been installed since 1999 at about 10 districts in Indonesia. Automatic equipments monitor 5 parameters (SO2, PM10, CO, NO2 and O3) continuously, and the status of air pollution is evaluated by the Pollutant Standard Index (PSI).
||“Air Pollution Study in Beijing 2002 by using NAA and PM10 Particulates” by Prof. Bangfa Ni of China Institute of Atomic Energy. Particulate matter samples collected at Che Gong Zhuang, Beijing are analyzed by k0-NAA method. Around 45 elements per sample are determined by this method. Multi elements data are evaluated by enrichment factors, factor analysis and so on.
||“Collection of Size Fractionated Particulate Matter Sample for NAA in Japan” by Tsunehiko Otoshi, Tohoku University of Community Service and Science, Japan. At two monitoring sites in Japan, particulate matter samples are collected for NAA. While higher concentration of coarse particulates is observed during spring season, average concentration of PM10 during the common sampling period is 0.031mg/m3 in urban site, and 0.022mg/m3 in rural site.
||“INAA of Atmospheric Particulate Collected in Hachioji and Sakata”, by Dr.Yasuji Oura of Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan. Particulate matter samples collected at two sites in Japan are analyzed by NAA. For the determination of Cr, Cl, and Br, impurity of blank filter should be considered, and blank values should be subtracted in calculation. Among elements determined, concentrations of Cl, Ag, Zn, Cu in individual size fractions are different between two monitoring sites. It depends on the difference in emission sources at each site.
||“Elemental Quantification of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung and Lembang Regions”, by Mr.Sutisna, Research and Development Center for Materials Science and Technology, Indonesia. NAA is applied to particulate matter samples collected at Bandung (urban) and Lembang (rural). In rural site, fine portion of particulates is dominant. However, in urban site, higher concentrations of coarse particles are observed. Enrichment factors of elements such as V, Br, and Cl differ depending on the season.
||“Recent Application of NAA in Korea” by Dr. Yong Sam Chung of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea. Regarding activities of the project, air pollution study and preliminary experiments with an application of ko-method are carried out. Air particulate samples collected at two regions (suburban and industrial area of Daejeon city) are analyzed by NAA and concentrations of 25 elements in 50 filter samples are determined. Two certified reference materials (CRMs) distributed from Japan are used for analytical quality control. Higher mass concentrations of airborne particulate matters are observed during spring season due to Asian dust. Concentrations of black carbon are measured using reflectometer. For the evaluation of emission source for multi-element data, enrichment factors and correlation coefficients are calculated for fine and coarse particulates.
||“Characterization of the Finest and Coarse Airborne Particulate Matter in Kuala Lumpur’s ambient air” by Dr.Khalik Haji Wood of Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Malaysia. Particulate samples collected at the site about 1km from Kuala Lumpur City Center are analyzed by NAA method. Average mass concentrations of fine particulates of 0.031mg/m3 are higher than those of coarse particles of 0.019mg/m3. High particulate concentrations which may be caused by haze episodes are not observed during the sampling period. Quality control of NAA is carried out using NIST SRM 1633a. Some elements such as Mn and Cr in fine portion of particulates indicate the presence of anthropogenic pollution sources around the monitoring site.
||“Airborne Particulate Matter Collection and Analysis by XRF” by Ms.Flora Lopez Santos of Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Philippines. Particulate samples collected at three monitoring sites in Manila Metropolis are analyzed by XRF method. The sampling stations designated for the FNCA program are at a commercial area close to a major highway. PNRI is considering several options to resume reactor-related activities, and it is necessary to ensure continuing availability of expertise in NAA. Obtained data indicate the decrease of Pb concentration in fine particles because of the use of unleaded gasoline in Philippines.
||“Study of Urban Air Pollution in Thailand” by Dr.Wanna Chueinta of Office of Atoms for Peace, Thailand. Particulate matters collected at downtown Bangkok are analyzed by NAA and 20 elements can be determined. Black carbon is one of major constituents of fine particulates. Quality control study of NAA using SRMs indicate that too small amounts of SRM size, say less than 1mg, may yield unreliable or highly uncertain values, especially for such elements determined by using short-lived nuclides.
||“Airborne Particulate Matter as a Demonstration using ko-INAA at Nuclear Research Institute of Vietnam” by Mr.Ho Manh Dung of Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat, Vietnam. Particulate matter samples collected at two monitoring sites (industrial site in Ho Chi Minh City, and rural site in Dateh) are analyzed by ko-method.
About 28 elements for both sites are determined by ko-method. The ko-method has an advantage to simplify the routine calculation process in NAA. It is insisted that ko-NAA method works better than the conventional NAA using SRMs when evaluating emission sources, considering a higher reproducibility in the relationship between elements.
After the presentation of the above country reports, general discussion was held as follows;
||Considering the importance of QA and QC in NAA, it was confirmed that some efforts related with QA/QC (inter-laboratory comparison, laboratory round robin test and/or validation of method) would be continuously made using the two CRMs provided and their results would be included in the country report at future workshops.
||Several opinions were exchanged for sampling methodologies and sampling sites of PMs. (It was decide to adopt “PM2” or “fine particles” instead of “PM2.5”, considering a poor accuracy of the cut off of a Gent SFU sampler.)
||Future visions of researches using NAA and its needs related to marketing were discussed.
||It was emphasized that the utilization of ko-method would greatly improve the performance of NAA.
2.2 SUMMARIES OF KO EXPERIMENTS AND REPORTS RELATED WITH KO SOFTWARES
(Reports related to ko-software)
A demonstration experiment of NAA using ko-method was performed. Although this was the first performance of the application of ko-method to real samples at BATAN, reasonable data were finally obtained for geological standard rock powder samples after tremendous efforts of Indonesian scientists. It may be mentioned here that the success of this demonstration experiment was achieved by an excellent collaboration of Indonesian and Japanese peoples. Especially, the contribution of Mr. F. Sasajima of JAERI was highly appreciated.
||“Demonstration of NAA ko-software, ADVNAA” by NI Bangfa, China Institute of Atomic Energy, China. A ko-software developed by the speaker at CIAE, which is named ADVNAA is demonstrated. Several features which are not admitted for the European software (KAYZERO/SOLCOI) are explained.
|| “Comparison of Chinese and European ko-softwares” by Fumio Sasajima, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Japan. Two kinds of ko-softwares (KAYZERO/SOLCOI and ADVNAA) are compared by applying these softwares to environmental reference standard samples (NIST 1632c, NIES No. 8 and GSJ JB-1). Basically, there is no essential difference between analytical results obtained by them.
|| “Evaluation of CIAE-ko software” by Y. Oura, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan. A ko-software developed at CIAE, China, which is mentioned as ADVNAA above, is critically evaluated in comparison with a DSM ko-software (KAIZERO/SOLCOI). Being similar to the conclusion by Sasajima, no essential difference is found between two softwares.
|| “Development of ko-standardization method of NAA (ko-NAA) regarding software and experiment in Dalat Research Reactor of Vietnam” by Ho Manh Dung, Nuclear Research Institute, Vietnam. A ko-software developed by the speaker at NRI (Dalat) is demonstrated. By applying the ko-software to several standard reference materials including NIST-1632c and NIES-8, it is shown that the ko-method using the software and experimental procedure developed by the speaker is reliable and practical for air particulate matters.
2.3 FUTURE PROGRAMS
(1) Air particulate study
During 2002, each country achieved a satisfactory progress, as reported in country reports of air particulate study. Up to now, no apparent problems were admitted in conducting the program of air particulate study. Following such a promising situation, we have set the following plan for 2003.
|| We continuously collect and analyze air particulate matters according to the agreement at the 2001 FNCA workshop.
||To summarize experimental outcomes of 2002, we agreed to prepare a joint report in which all data for air particulate matters collected in 2002 are to be included. We set several stages with their deadline as follows;
|| (Stage 1; June 30, 2003) (Submission of data and experimental conditions) All data are to be reported to a responsible person in Japan, whose name will be announced later. At most, two sampling sites per each country. Each country is required to report all necessary conditions regarding sampling in addition to all analyses data (with errors). A type of analytical uncertainties needs to be specified. A format for describing sampling conditions will be distributed to each country. Thailand is responsible to prepare and distribute the format. Earlier submission is highly advised.
|| (Stage 2; August 15, 2003) (Submission of comment/discussion) Once all data are accommodated in one table (probably in EXCEL file), it will be sent to all persons who have sent their analytical data. Then, they are required to send scientific comments and discussions for compiled data to a NAA group leader (M. Ebihara).
|| (Stage 3; September 30, 2003) (Finalization of draft) A NAA group leader is responsible to appoint an appropriate person to organize all comments and discussions sent from contributors and finalize a report (reports). Modification of the draft can be done by communicating with each contributor by email.
We have agreed to conduct some experiments related with QA/QC issue at the 2001 workshop. Unfortunately, only three countries (Korea, Malaysia, and Thailand) reported this subject at this workshop. We discussed again this subject and set a new plan for the year of 2003 as follows;
In order to evaluate uncertainties involved in analyzing a small size of sample like air particulate matters, a small-sized sample is to be analyzed repeatedly. For this purpose, 1 mg of two SRM sample (NIST 1632C and NIES No.8) is to be analyzed more than ten times. Either ko method or comparison method (or both) can be applied by using either chemical standards or other standard reference materials for obtaining absolute contents of elements.
Apart from this, a concern of impurities in filter papers was stated. This issue is also important in evaluating our QA/QC. Therefore, it is desired to analyze a blank filter occasionally
(3) Installation and development of ko-software
Following the discussion at the last workshop in Beijing, we continuously discuss a possibility of the introduction of ko-method to our project of air particulate matters. After extensive discussion, we came to the following conclusions;
|| Introduction of ko method in analyzing air particulate matters is highly desired in all participating countries. Note that the introduction of ko method includes installing of ko software and performing of experiment with use of the software.
||Considering advantages and disadvantages for using a common software and individual softwares among our community, it was admitted that we would choose any appropriate software from three existing ko softwares; DSM version, CIAE version and Dalat version. The last two versions are so-called home-made sofrwares and their developers announced that these softwares could be distributed for inspection without any charge among participating countries of the workshop. Each country who wants to install these home-made softwares may contact directly to their developers for their installation and use.
|| At the next meeting, each country is supposed to present INAA data for air particulate matters calculated by using ko method.
|| In future, it is desired that a common upgraded software of ko method, which will be shared among our community, will be developed based on CIAE and Dalat versions. Their developers agreed to make effort to complete such a software.
|| It is requested that a training course for ko method is held, hopefully before the next workshop. It may be considered that such a course is attached to the next workshop although earlier opening is more practical and, hence, desired.
1) (Future activities) For future activities of the NAA group, the following themes were raised by participants;
(i) INAA of marine samples for heavy metals.
(ii) INAA of solid waste samples.
(iii) Application of NAA for mining.
(iv) Development of prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA).
As the study of air particulate matters is expected to be performed without any problem among all the participating countries in coming years, we may extend our activities to some of the above listed themes in (near) future. Among them, the marine sample was suggested and agreed to be the most feasible subject for co-operative analysis of the NAA group. Detailed procedures may be discussed at the next workshop. In the meanwhile, some common samples are to be analyzed and their data are desired to be presented at the next workshop. Malaysia is responsible to prepare such samples and distribute them to all participating countries.
2) (The miscellaneous)
||It is aimed that our analytical data are reflected in the environmental management policy. To make this successful and effective, we must make our best efforts to find any way to approach to appropriate officials, agencies, institute, etc, which are related environmental pollution problems.
||It is encouraged that participating countries actively apply for any exchange program like the former STA fellowship program to expand our activities within the frame of FNCA. The Japanese (sub)group-leader is requested to make an appeal to MEXT that such an exchange program is essential to promote the FNCA activity.
3. WORK PLANS AND RECOMMENDATIONS BY THE 2002 FNCA WORKSHOP ON UTILIZATION OF RESEARCH REACTORS
3.1 In accordance with the FNCA “Proposal on the Next three year Activity in the Field of Utilization of Research Reactors” by the FNCA coordinator meeting on March 2001, the workshop agrees to make the following work plans and recommendations for the next workshop in the area of Utilization of Research Reactor to meet needs of the FNCA countries and to achieve results with socio-economic impact to end users.
(1) Tc-99m Generator
(2) Neutron Activation Analysis
- Standardization of production procedure for PZC based Tc-99m generator should be studied and established. Draft of the procedure shall be made by Kaken and Project Leaders of Indonesia, Japan and Vietnam to be circulated to all participating countries.
- Distribution of the PZC material will be continued for three times in the year 2003 for the
experiment of Mo adsorbent PZC for Tc-99m generator with strictly standardized experimental procedure instruction. The amount of PZC material to be sent by Kaken Co. is 15 grams each time.
For these experiments, use of secondary column of alumina and saline containing NaOCl for Tc-99m elution process will be compulsory.
- China (NPIC), Indonesia (BATAN) and Korea (KAERI) can provide Mo-99 produced by irradiation of natural Mo-98 with free of charge except expense of container and transportation fee.
- Comparison of technological aspects for production of PZC type Tc-99m generator is expected to be compiled by Indonesia for fission type generator whereas China and Vietnam for gel type generator.
- Survey of the potential size of market of Tc-99m generator in terms of number of gamma cameras, number of tests for diagnosis, cost of the imported generators and system for the distribution of generators.
- An automated Mo-99 loading/PZC column packing machine is to be set in the hot cell
facility of BATAN in cooperation between Kaken and BATAN.
3.2 Additional remark
- Air particulate matters are to be continuously collected and analyzed in accordance with the agreement at the 2001 FNCA workshop. To summarize experimental outcomes of 2002, a joint report in which all data of air particulate matters collected in 2002 are included is to be prepared in 2003.
- At the next workshop, each country is supposed to present INAA data for air particulate matters calculated by using ko-method. In order to put this goal into practice, it is desired for a training course for ko-method to be held, preferably prior to the 2003 workshop or in connection with the workshop.
- Each country may choose any of DSM version, CIAE version and Dalat version as a ko-software when introducing the ko-method. However, it is highly desired that a common software be used among our community for assessing INAA data effectively and efficiently. Such a software should be developed in collaboration with each other of the NAA workshop members.
- Besides air particulate matters, marine sediment samples will be included within the scope of our activities. The term of 2003 will be used for working out our new strategy.
The workshop agrees that the following countries be proposed in the FNCA Coordinators Meeting as possible venues for the next year's workshop.
|| Vietnam as the hosting country for the workshop. Themes: 1) Application of NAA technology to the environmental analysis. 2) Information exchange on research reactors and their applications, and discussion on related topics.
||Indonesia as the hosting country for the sub-workshop. Themes: 1) Establishment of the Tc Generator technology. 2) Application of Neutron Scattering technology for the development of TPE.