SUMMARY REPORT OF THE FNCA 2005 WORKSHOP ON THE UTILIZATION OF RESEARCH REACTORS
August 8 - 12, 2005
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
This document presents a summary on the implementation of the FNCA 2005 Workshop on the Utilization of Research Reactors held in Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia from August 8 to 12 , 2005. The workshop discussed three fields of activities, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Tc-99m generator Technology (TCG) and Research Reactor Technology (RRT ). It was attended by scientists and technical specialists from China , Indonesia , Japan , Korea , Thailand , the Philippines , Vietnam , and Malaysia . A summary of the discussions, progress reports and future programs of each group are presented below.
1. Neutron Activation Analysis
The workshop was held in Kuala Lumpur from 8th August until 12th August 2005 located at Legend Hotel. The participants consist of 8 member states namely China , Indonesia , Japan , Korea , Philippines , Thailand , Vietnam and Malaysia . Each member state was represented by 1 delegate except Japan with 3 delegates.
This workshop included the following agenda:
- Country report on the status of environmental sample analysis and its reflection on environmental policies.
- Environmental sample analysis planning and its reflections on environmental policies.
- Discussion on future plans with Dr Sueo Machi.
Each participant presented the country report on the status of environmental monitoring in their respective country and future plan for the new phase project.
In addition, Prof. T. Otoshi presented a paper on "Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Control Strategies - the case of Acid Rain". This review showed case studies in Europe under the EMEP (Cooperative Program for monitoring and evaluations of the long-range transmissions of air pollution in Europe ). Whereas in Asia, the similar collaboration work within Asian countries is formed under the EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia ). Protocol wise the implementation of EMEP is legally bonded and EANET operated otherwise. Both programs have been successfully implemented.
Brief information from each country report on status of environmental monitoring presentation is as follows:
- China (Prof Ni): At national level, there is clear framework on environmental management which is lead by National Environment Protection General Bureau. The environmental monitoring program is very extensive covering wide range of environmental material such as freshwater, solid waste, atmosphere and soil. Various types of analytical techniques were employed for characterizing of the environmental samples including NAA. With respect to air pollution studies, China has demonstrated great effort in monitoring various parameters in SPM.
- Indonesia (Mr Sutisna): The presentation covers serious environmental issues facing by Indonesia , namely destruction of land and forest, air pollution, water pollution of beach and coastal areas. Thus all proper action has been implemented to address the environmental issues such as development environmental management and conservation programs. The monitoring program emphasis on water quality (30 provinces), air pollution (33 continue permanent and 9 mobile sites) and marine pollution (7 study areas). Analytical methods employed by the authorities are AAS and chemical methods. Apart from routine monitoring conducted by the authority, the National Nuclear Energy Agency is also engage in environmental research project making use of NAA as primary analytical technique.
- Japan (Dr Oura): The legislative framework for comprehensive environmental management is covered. There are also environmental quality standard for air, water and soil. Environmental material monitored include air (>2000 sites), water (398 stations), and soil. Currently, NAA is not formally adopted to analyze environmental monitoring samples. However, Ibaraki prefecture and Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection have made application for adopting INAA for the analysis of SPM.
- Korea (Mr Moon): The Ministry of Environment is the primary governmental agency responsible for Korea 's environmental protection. The environmental monitoring program cover air (372 sites), water (1837 sites), groundwater (2000), marine (346 sites) and soil (>3500 sites). Proper quality standards for air, water and soil are available. The marine pollution monitoring has been performed by Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries since 1997. NAA is not an official method used for environmental monitoring. However, NAA has been used for specific projects from environmental scientists. In future, there is a possibility that NAA will be included as one of the official testing method. Furthermore, an attempt will be made to promote collaboration with environmental authorities.
- Malaysia (Mr Wee): The Department of Environment under the EQA has authority to ascertain the environment quality through the implementation of environmental monitoring program covers air (51 stations), sediment (63 stations), seawater (85 stations), groundwater (128 wells) and river water (>1000 stations). The soil quality is being monitored by Department of Agriculture. There are quality standard outlined for marine water, freshwater, groundwater and air. The routine monitoring of air and water quality is currently contracted to private company. Apart from routine monitoring, MINT has involved in environmental research in collaboration with local institutions utilizing NAA as primary analytical methods.
- Philippines (Ms F. Santos): As required by the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 an air quality action plan was prepared which required the upgrading of the air monitoring network for Metro Manila. In addition to the existing 10 TSP monitoring stations, 8 real time air monitoring stations were made operational in 2004 covering the criteria pollutants: PM10, NOx, SO2, CO, Ozone and non-criteria pollutants: benzene, toluene and xylene. Pb is also analyzed in PM10 by the standard technique, AAS. There are 52 manual and 2 automatic TSP samplers for the rest of the country. The PNRI has co-located 3 stations at the new real-time EMB stations. These generate data on PM2.2, PM10, elemental composition and pollution sources. Analyses of samples are done locally by XRF spectrometry. Complementary analysis by I NAA will make possible the measurement of additional elements including As, Se and Hg. It will also enhance the database for source apportionment.
- Thailand (Dr Sirinart): There is a clear legal framework on environmental monitoring system lead by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE). The environmental monitoring is under the Pollution Control Department with many divisions under its control which looks into problems related to air and water quality, hazardous waste, and solid waste. While marine is under Department of Marine and Coastal Resources. Many samples have been used for monitoring the environment pollution level in Thailand such as air particulates, marine and freshwater biota, soil and sediments. Common analytical technique applied for environmental samples include AAS, ICP-AES, and XRF. NAA has been contributed a small portion of the analytical work. OAP has been in close collaboration with the environmental authorities.
- Vietnam (Dr Nguyen): The National network system of environmental monitoring consisting of Ministry of Resource and Environment and Ministry of Science and Technology. The implementations of monitoring work perform by National Environmental Agency of MORE. Environmental samples collected include air particulate, marine sediments and biota, and seawater. Various analytical methods are used including nuclear and non-nuclear technique.
The summary for current environmental monitoring program for samples potentially applicable for NAA in member countries is tabulated in Appendix 1.
Summary report of new phase project proposal for 2005 - 2007:
Summary of discussion on the following agendas:
- China (Prof Ni): Four proposals are presented, namely investigation of air pollution at Fangshan District, Beijing ; study on water and soil lose by using REE tracer and NAA techniques; study on Beijing air pollution by biomonitor and NAA technique; marine sediments and biota. Linkage with respective environmental institutions. Output in 2005 for air pollution study include number of sample collected of which 20 will be analyzed by NAA (40 elements). Data interpretation on air quality will be investigated.
- Indonesia (Mr Sutisna): Focus on utilization of INAA on the elemental analysis on marine samples biota and sediment. Element to be analyzed by ko-INAA include Hg, Se, As, Cr, Mn, Sb, Zn, Cd, Sc, Fe, and Co. The study areas are Banten Bay , and the Jakarta Bay . Sampling will be carried out by the respected authorities. Output for 2005 will be the establishment of ko-INAA for analysis of marine samples. Output for 2006 - 2008 will be sample collection and preparation; and data evaluation. The implementation of the project is in cooperation with local authorities and environmental research institutes.
- Japan (Prof Ebihara): Target materials are SPM ( Hachioji , Sakata and Metropolitan area). The project program will be also linked to NIES scientists program for air monitoring at Okinawa . The collaborative work also covers the analysis of SPM reference sample prepared by NIES. NAA method will be persuaded in the analytical manual. The 2005 goals for each study are clearly specified. On the other hand, the final goals of the project program were also objectively stated.
- Korea (Mr Moon): Target samples will be air particulate matter, soil, industrial waste (incinerator ash and sludge), sediment and biota. Site for air pollution monitoring will be selected and sampling will be decided in 2005. The study will be implemented in collaboration with environmental scientist from universities using NAA . For the analysis of other types of samples, the main output in 2005 is to establish analytical methods that will also be undertaken in collaboration with environmental scientists from universities.
- Malaysia (Mr Wee): The marine samples namely sediment and SPM will be selected. Marine sediment had been collected in recent field expedition at Malaysian coastal areas. Apart from NAA, other methods will also be employed in the study program. For 2005, the result on Strait of Malacca will be analyzed and reported in the next FNCA meeting. By 2007, other results from East Coast Peninsular Malaysia will be reported. SPM samples will also be analyzed and the results will be reported.
- Philippines (Ms F. Santos): The study will focus on air particulate pollution which is a national priority. The study area selected is Valenzuela, an industrial area in Metro Manila. Samples are collected twice weekly, weighed and analyzed by XRF spectrometry. Through the FNCA, samples will be analyzed at some regional centers by INAA to yield complementary data including Se, As, and Hg which are difficult to analyze by XRF. It will allow comparison of results and expansion of the database for source apportionment. It also envisages that a proficiency test will be carried out to demonstrate the performance of INAA and other nuclear analytical techniques. It aims to promote the recognition of INAA and XRF by environmental authorities for environmental monitoring.
- Thailand (Dr Sirinart): focus on SPM and soils samples. About 30 - 35 sampling sites in the Saraburi province has been identified. An official contract has been established with Air Quality and Noise Management Bureau, Department of Pollution Control to monitor air pollution in the province. The study area was chosen because of its being heavily contaminated with dust particles from industrial activities. Thus the PCD needs to identify the source of pollution in order to mitigate the problem. It is expected in 2005 that SPM (monthly from August 2005 to May 2006) and soil samples (150 samples) will be collected by PCD officials from the sampling sites and analyzed using NAA and XRF. The final data will be utilized by the Air Quality and Noise Management in postulating the potential source of pollution in the province and to remediate the problem in Saraburi province.
- Vietnam (Dr Nguyen): marine samples chosen are seawater (18 elements), biota (20 elements), and sediment (20 elements). Study areas have been chosen namely coastal area of Nha Trang, Phan Thiet Bay , and Ganh Rai Bay . Analytical technique for the elemental analysis is NAA . Expected outcome for 2005 is to establish pre-concentration procedures for selected radionuclides and elements from seawater. It also expected to establish standard procedures for determination of elements in marine environmental samples. For the full period from 2005-2007 is to generate primary data set for sediment, biota and seawater samples. Finally, the establishment of monitoring network of Vietnam marine environmental pollution will be possible.
- Implementation of the second phase FNCA/ NAA project: a detailed discussion with Dr Machi has been held. Each country has presented future plan on the second phase of this project. The brief description of Future Plans for FNCA on application of NAA for Environmental Monitoring Program is tabulated in Appendix 2. Upon discussion with all member states, Dr Machi seems to be satisfied with the presented future plan and would give his support for the official acceptance of the proposed plan by the respective FNCA Coordinators. It is important to note that Dr Machi has offered his assistance to communicate with higher authority of several member states on the implementation of the new proposed project.
- Current status and future perspective for k0-NAA implementation:
|| It has been using ko-NAA for many years. Currently, k0-IAEA has been installed for comparison with their own software. However, the k0-IAEA lack of peak error correction.
|| The use of ko-method will be extended to other BATAN's research center. The k0-IAEA will be established.
|| K0-NAA has been implemented for few years but with some difficulties. Currently there are four softwares used namely k0-China, k0-Dalat, k0-DSM and k0-IAEA. There is an intention to use k0-IAEA in the future. However, there is no function to calculate a and f values in the k0-IAEA software.
|| The k0-IAEA has been used to analyze some SRM samples. Currently the k0-IAEA and k0-DSM are employed.
|| There are two software namely k0-Dalat and k0-IAEA installed. Currently, k0-Dalat has been used for analysis of environmental samples.
|| There is a need for capacity building to implement the k0-IAEA.
|| K0-Dalat has been developed for determination of elements in environmental samples.
- Remaining works:
||The 1st paper is under review by journal. The 2nd paper will be sent this coming October. The final version will be prepared and distributed to all members for comments prior to submission to journal.
|| China will send the data by end of this month. The compiled data will be distributed to all member states for evaluations. The final results will be put online.
|| Mr Mori will edit the booklet which contains the compilation of all report comprising each country. The dateline for submission of country report is December 2005.
|| Dr Ho will contact with counterparts for this matter. The counterparts will submit their results in the basis of the deadline before Nov 2005.
|Collaborative analysis of SRM
|| SRM data from 4 countries have been collected through final call for data in June 2005. No data report from China, Malaysia and Korea. (Philippines may be excluded as using XRF). If there is no objection, the compilation of data in hand will be processed.
|Intercomparison of NAA and XRF of SPM data
|| Still reviewing the data from NAA and XRF. Further discussion between Ms Santos and Dr Oura.
There are two subprojects identified for the next phase in conjunction with the primary project of phase two. Interlaboratory comparison of NIES SRMs for air particulate matter (Lead by Dr Oura) and marine sediment (Lead by Mr Sutisna).
The budget from MEXT will be acquired to purchase small items such as SRMs, flux monitors and air filters.
Current Environmental Monitoring Program for samples potentially applicable for NAA in member countries.
|Type of samples
||SPM, Marine samples and freshwater.
|Monitoring program adopted
||routine monitoring /project
||Routine monitoring based on the law
||Regular monitoring by government regulations
|Extend of monitoring system
||National level, daily and monthly sampling at about 1000 sites.
||SPM: 33 permanent,
10 mobile, continuous - by government. 2 by Institute.
Marine: 6 sites, 2 samplings per year.
Freshwater: 30 locations, 2 samplings per year.
|National level, hourly sampling at about 1900 sites for SPM concentration & monthly or seasonally sampling at about 300 sites for concentrations of toxic substances
||About 300 sites
||Environmental Authorities and research institutions.
||SPM: regional agency ( Jakarta ), environmental authorities (Others).
Marine and freshwater by environmental authorities.
|Local governments & Ministry of Environment
||Ministry of Environment in Korea and local environmental authorities
||NAA, ICPMS, PIXE, AAS, XRF, etc.
||AAS, chemical methods (local authorities)
NAA (research institute)
|AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS
|Linkage with Env. Authorities
|Possibility of closer cooperations
||Yes (with metropolitan government institute)
||Uncertain. However, make an attempt.
|Type of samples
||SPM, marine samples
||SPM, marine samples
|Monitoring program adopted
||Routine - SPM
Project based - marine.
||Routine / project
|Extend of monitoring system
||National level - marine, 63 stations.
SPM - 51 stations.
|TSP: 10 in Metro Manila, 52 in other cities
PM10: 8 in Metro Manila air shed (starting 2004)
|National level - marine, 5 sites.
National Level - SPM, 71 permanent monitoring stations throughout the country.
Marine sediment: annually, 13 sampling sites.
Biota and seawater: semi-annually, 13 sampling sites
||Private contractor for environmental authority
||AAS, ICPMS, IC, HPLC
||AAS as official technique for Pb
||AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS, IC, XRF
||Nuclear Analytical Techniques: NAA , alpha, beta counting system, AAS, etc.
||Yes for complementary data
||Yes (SPM, marine)
|Linkage with Env. Authorities
||Yes, PNRI long-term data used as basis for formulating proposed PM2.5 guideline value; data included in 2002 and 2003-2004 National Air Quality Status Report; Co-location of sampler at 3 new EMB stations
|Possibility of closer cooperations
||Yes. PNRI monitoring program extended to Davao City in Mindanao with participation of local collaborators.
Brief description of future plans for FNCA on application of NAA for environmental monitoring program.
||Marine Biota (mussel and fish)
|Reason of Choice
||Fanshang district is worst air pollution in Beijing at suburban area. It is close to our institute.
||a)Mussel is importance as bioindicator;
b)Consumed by most people;
|a)Part of aquatic ecosystem;
b)Most of pollutant is suspended on the sediment;
|Easier way to appeal NAA data to the Environmental authorities
||Have experience and equipments
|Number of Samples Analyzed per year
||24 samples per year
||a)Depend to the request Environmental authorities;
b)Max 22 samples;
||About 50 samples per year
||Fe, Cr, Sb, As, Mn, etc
|Hg, Se, As, Cr, Mn, Cd, Sc, Sb, Fe, Mg, Ni, Cs, Zn, V, Cu.
||Cr, Ni, As, Be, Mn, Zn, Sb, Co, Sn, Ce, Se ..
||Al, As, Br, Cr, Mn
|Goals in 2005 (measurable objectives)
||Sampling collection at Fanshang district.
Sample analyze by k0- NAA method.
Correlation analysis of elements.
Mapping elements monthly.
Characterize air quality at sampling sites.
|a)The agreement between NNAE and The Environmental Authorities signed;
b)Collecting of 22 Marine samples at 22 sampling points ( Jakarta and Banten)
c)Establishment of ko-INAA at three NAA Laboratory (Serpong, Jakarta , Yogyakarta );
d)Analyzing collected Marine Sample by ko-INAA;
e)Characterize the environmental quality at Banten and Jakarta ;
|a)Collecting SPM at three sampling points ( Hachioji , Sakata & downtown Tokyo ).
b)Analyzing collected SPM by NAA (including PGA).
c)Characterize the air quality at the 3 sampling area in terms of elemental abundances in SPM.
d)Initiating joint researches with NIES scientist on SPM.
e)Approaching such people working at local government institutes to discuss the data quality in monitoring the environmental pollution level.
Approaching the group in charge of making up the analytical manual for SPM.
|Contact local env. Government located in Daejon.
|Goals at the end of program
||Provide air pollutant information to environment Authorities.
Mapping the air quality monthly.
Calculate air quality at sampling sites.
Convince the use of NAA to local authorities in air quality monitoring.
| Acceptance of INAA nuclear technique by the environmental authorities in the environmental monitoring
Provide an information of pollutants concentration for government and environmental authority in management and controlling the environmental quality;
Database of level pollutant concentration on the region selected;
|1.Routinely collecting SPM at 3 sampling points.
2.Characterizing the variation of elemental abundance in SPM in both range of short and long term at 3 sampling points.
3.Convincing the NIES scientists through collaborative researches that NAA works effectively in analyzing SPM.
4.Deepening the understanding of NAA among people working at local government institutes.
5.Making people of the governmental protection sector understand an effectiveness of NAA and a high reliability of NAA data.
|1. Extend capability of NAA as official testing method in Korea .
2. Provide NAA data to local authorities.
||Marine sediment, seawater, biota
|Reason of Choice
||Poor air quality
||Funded by AELB and MINT
||Related to a national priority
||Differentiate the source of pollution in Saraburi province where cement and rock crushing industries is the major target, with reference to the need from the environmental authority (PCD).
||Part of aquatic systems.
Is most polluted coastal water area.
This region is influence by alluvial mineral monazite ore and exploitation of crude oil.
|Number of Samples Analyzed per year
||Once a week
||10 sampling sites.
||208 samples for 1 station
||About 200 samples (provided by the PCD in 2005 and another 200 samples in 2006)
||50 samples (2006 - 2007).
- 20 sediment samples.
- 10 seawater samples.
- 2 biota samples.
||Toxic and Trace element
||Ca, Fe, Cr, Ni, As, Mn, Zn, Co, Al, Ce, Si, P, S, Pb etc.
||20 elements: Ca, Fe, Cr, Ni, As, Mn, Zn, Co, Al, Cu, Ce, U, Th, Se, Cd, La, Eu, Hg.
|Goals in 2005 (measurable objectives)
||a. Collecting SPM - 40 sample per year
b. Analyzing collected SPM by NAA .
|30 marine samples already collected from Strait of Malacca .
Analysis of sediment sample collected.
|a.air particulate samples collected at a designated site: Valenzuela, an industrial site
b.available particulate mass and elemental composition data by XRF for 50% of the sample
c.available complementary data by INAA As, Se, Hg
d.Report submitted to Environmental authority
|- PCD will provide samples of SPM (on Teflon filter) and soil from the study area to OAP on a monthly basis.
- K 0 NAA will be fully implementation for SPM with the assistance of expert provided through FNCA.
- Analysis of SPM by K0 NAA and XRF.
|To collect 50 marine samples in 3 sampling sites.
Using NAA, and NAT.
|Goals at the end of program
||1.Enjoint data in DOE report (on PM2.5)
2. Interpretation source of air pollution.
|1. Joint report with funding organization
2. Database on marine environment
|1.air particulate samples collected at a designated site: Valenzuela, an industrial site
2.available particulate mass and elemental composition data by XRF for 50% of the sample
3.available complementary data by INAA As, Se, Hg
4.Report submitted to Environmental authority
5.Participation in group activities under FNCA project
6.Presentation of results at local/international conferences
Preparation of report for general consumption; possible use of data to justify repair of reactor or enhanced cooperation with regional facilities, e.g. contract researches
|- Data transferred to PCD for interpretation with assistance from OAP.|
-Postulation on source of pollution for the remediate of the problem.
- Identify pollution maker and probably legal action can be placed.
- Proven the competency of INAA in environmental field.
|Provide information of the pollutants to the respected authorities.
Database on the level of pollutants in the selected regions.
2. Tc-99m Generator Technology
Attendees in the Tc-99m generator group of the 2005 Workshop in Malaysia are one delegate each from Korea , Philippines , Thailand and Viet Nam , two delegates from Indonesia , three from Japan and five delegates from Malaysia . The participant from China was not able to attend this workshop due to unavoidable circumstances, however their country report was submitted and discussed. The workshop discussed and promoted the technology of Tc-99m generator using poly-zirconium compound (PZC) as an adsorbent. Some participating countries proposed to implement the technology.
2.1 Evaluation on the performance of PZC-based Tc-99m generator conducted by each country.
PZC material distribution has been implemented nine times during the previous period of Tc-99m generator development. In the final stage of the period, Kaken Co. has established a quality control procedure for synthesizing PZC. From the experimental results, each country indicated good performance of the new PZC-based Tc-99m generator in terms of adsorption capacity of Mo-99, elution profile and yield of Tc-99m, breakthrough of Mo-99 and material strength or stability of PZC granules and so on. Consequently, the participating countries were convinced that the PZC-based Tc-99m generator production technology has many advantages over the fission technology.
The summary of experimental results from each country is as follows:
2.2Work plan for the new phase Tc-99m generator project
The PZC distributed by Kaken Co. has good quality for generator preparation, but the stable supply, both in term of quantity and quality, of PZC is a key factor for routine manufacture of such generator.
The loading machine should be improved to speed up the loading of Mo-99 to the adsorbent and consequently, to shorten the generator production period.
A good performance of such generator should be further assured for stable supply to the market.
- A rapid QC protocol for routine production of PZC-based99 Mo/99m Tc generator should be developed and established.
- QA and GMP procedures for the production of radiopharmaceuticals from PZC-based99 Mo/99m Tc generators should be implemented.
- The activities towards the registration of PZC-based99 Mo/99m Tc generators with Indonesian FDA have been started.
- The concept design of PZC-based99 Mo/99m Tc generators loaded with about 1 Ci of99 Mo is being developed.
- Phase 1 clinical trial has been performed for 6 volunteers.
- A know-how technology to prepare PZC-based Tc-99m generator has been established.
- Recognition and recommendation of QA/QC procedures for first phase clinical application is at the final stage.
- Widespread use of new generator technology will benefit the people of FNCA countries.
- The quality of PZC has been improved with respect to reduce breakthrough of the 99Mo, better material stability, better elution efficiency etc.
- High quality 99mTc from PZC based adsorbent when compared to that produced from commercial generators was observed.
- PZC is a good adsorbent for (n,γ )99Mo/99mTc generator and 99mTc-NaTcO4 from
- PZC-based generator is suitable for medical use.
- A sol-gel adsorbent was introduced as another alternative for PZC column.
- The elution efficiency obtained is between 80% - 90% and within a narrow range when compared with the commercial product from fission based Tc-99m generator.
- Adsorption capacity is between 213 - 245 mg of Mo-99/1g of PZC. The basis for practical use of 99Mo-99mTc generator has been solved.
- The problem of molybdenum-99 breakthrough is solved by adding a small alumina column next to the PZC column.
- Comparative studies on labeling 99mTc to MDP and others radiopharmaceuticals with 99mTc achieved excellent results.
- There is suggestion that the PZC synthesis preparation procedure should be standardized.
- The Philippines
- Technetium-99m (99mTc) remains as the main workhorse of nuclear medicine in the country. Alone or conjugated with other ligands, it is being used to show the function of major organs and other tissues such as the lung, kidney, liver and bone. It is imported to the Philippines as 99Mo-99mTc generator.
- The FNCA project has shown the feasibility of using a PZC column-reactor 99Mo generator for commercial application, citing mainly the cheaper cost of the PZC generator than the imported alumina column-fission 99Mo generator.
- Limited experiment has been conducted using low activity Mo-99, demonstrating the acceptability and improved performance of PZC as a column material for 99mTc generator.
- The commercial production of PZC ganarator can now be initiated.
- PZC batch coated with TEOS is used to prepare the generator. Very low loss of fine powder, high Mo adsorption and high Tc-99m elution yield were observed.
- The quality control results from labeling and bio-distribution study showed that the 99mTc-pertecnetate obtained from the PZC-based generator was of high quality suitable for nuclear medicine application.
- In conclusion, it is strongly believed that PZC-based generator would play an important role as alternative technology for production of99 Mo/99m Tc generator from (n, γ )99 Mo.
- Viet Nam
- In relation to 99mTc generator using new absorbent named PZC, Vietnam looks forward in continuing participation in doing R & D with other countries in term of new technology and information exchange related to production of this type of generator.
- Their results showed that Mo adsorption capacity is higher than 250mg Mo/g PZC and Tc-99m elution yield higher than 80%. Mo-99 breakthrough of about 0.02% and molybdenum element breakthrough of less than 5 m g Mo/ml were obtained.
- A good relationship between the Mo-content of adsorption solution and the Mo-adsorption capacity, adsorption percentage, Mo-breakthrough and Tc-99m elution yield was found. The preparation of PZC based Tc-99m chromatographic generator with 4-gram weight of PZC was successfully conducted.
2. 2.1 Objective
To promote the practical application of PZC-Mo-99 column that has been established in the previous years during the FNCA workshops.
2. 2.2 Outline of work plan
2. 2.2.1 FY2005
- Drafting and compiling comprehensive report for production technology.
- Planning the production of PZC-Mo-99 column and Tc-99m generator in each country.
- Survey of Tc-99m market scale (current and potential).
- Designing the loading machine in accordance with the production of Tc-99m generator in each country
2. 2.2.2 FY2006
- Optimal operation of the loading machine and quality control of its product
- Quality assurance of PZC material, Tc-99m and its labeled compounds for clinical use
- Cooperation with IAEA for dissemination of PZC technology
- Finalizing and publishing the standardized manual for practical application
2. 2.3 FNCA Support
2. 3 Strategy for routine production and distribution of PZC-based Tc-99m generator
- Kaken Co. provides PZC material for testing in accordance with a negotiated agreement about purpose of experiment.
- BATAN supports setting a network of (n,γ )Mo-99 bulk supply for the test of PZC-based Tc-99m generator production by providing free (n,γ )Mo-99. In this network, expenses of target material and transportation are to be borne by recipient.
Delegates from Malaysia , Philippines and Japan proposed a plan for routine production of PZC-based generator. Their proposals are as follow
2. 3.1 Malaysia
MINT offered to take a role as the test centre for practical production of PZC-based Tc-99m generator, requiring support from BATAN to supply (n,γ ) bulk Mo-99. MINT has been receiving a regular commercial supply of fission Molybdenum since early 90's and found it advantageous because Indonesia is proximate to Malaysia (~ 2 hrs flight).
A test model of production and operation, an important factor to promote global use of such generator, is offered to be pursued in the centre. MINT also showed willingness to provide some financial support in the commercial production of the generator.
The main considerations for starting the commercial production at MINT are:
- Supply of PZC material
- Every 6 month from Kaken Co.
- MINT staff training for QC and synthesis of PZC
- Scientist attachment
- Cooperation with BATAN's group
- 2 month-attachment at MINT
- Radiopharmaceutical kit preparation
- Tc-99m eluates QC and preparation of documents for local registration
- Preparation of hot-cell and equipments
- MINT to purchase or construct
- FNCA / KAKEN assist to install generator complete set
- Logistics and export
2. 3.2 The Philippines
The PNRI is engaging in an activity that promotes the application of radioisotope in human health. PNRI proposes the commercial production of PZC generator through the establishment of a facility for the in-house production of99 Mo-99m Tc generator. The generator will use PZC coming from Japan as the column material,99Mo sourced from neighboring country. The automatic loading and adsorption machine is to be fabricated. Because the PNRI has no local production of the generator, the requirements for successfully venturing into this business activity may differ from the other FNCA members. A careful assessment based on verified data is needed for the business plan.
Along with this concept, PNRI investigated the following items:
- Raw materials
- Production process
- Product cost
- Marketing research
- Market analysis and trend
- Competition and competitive edge
- Risk assessment and risk management
- Work plan for 2005-2007
- QA/QC plan
- Management team and organizational structure
- Potential funding sources,
- Revenue expectations
2. 3.3 Japan
A new model facility for routine production of PZC-based Tc-99m generator is p lanned to be established in Indonesia . It is a venture business funded by Kaken Co. in cooperation with BATAN and BATAN Teknologi under the initiative of FNCA. For this model facility BATAN group supports the production of PZC-based Tc-99m generators for testing the new type generator in each of the FNCA participating countries for the purpose of addressing the regulatory requirements in each country. The recipients bear the cost of materials and transportation for the provided generator.
2.3.4 Other issues:
Gamma camera situation
The participants discussed the problem related to the use of gamma camera. Support in terms of spare parts, trouble shooting and maintenance are necessary in order to expand the useful life of this expensive machine. There should be an effort to produce cheap and reliable gamma camera in future.
3 . Research Reactor Technology
3. 1 Objective
The objectives of the 1st workshop for Research Reactor Technology group for current project, "Sharing Neutronics Calculation Techniques for Core Management and Utilization of Research Reactors", are to share the information on current status of Neutronics Calculation Method used by the participating countries and the status of installation of common code, and to demonstrate how to install and execute the common code (SRAC).
3. 2 Opening
At the beginning of the workshop Dr. Yamashita has confirmed the objective and schedule of the Research Reactor Technology project which was decided during the previous workshop in Thailand , January 2005. The establishment of a common neutronics calculation technique on core management among member countries will help for safe and stable operations and advanced utilizations of research reactors. By acquiring common neutronics calculation codes, ability to evaluate characteristics of reactor core will be upgraded so as to enhance the safe and stable operations, and effective utilization of research reactors. The project will be carried out during FY 2005 - FY 2007.
Dr. Yamashita also briefly explained about the tentative schedule prepared during the previous meeting, which described the activity of the group during FY 2005.
He mentioned that most of the activities planned before the workshop has been carried out. The SRAC code was already distributed to the participants before the workshop, however, the MVP code will be distributed after official publication (probably as early as October 2005). The full tentative schedule for Research Reactor Technology group project is shown in Attachment A.
Project Activity for FY 2005
1St Workshop (August 2005)
Distribute information on minimum requirements for computer performance (standard procedure)
Distribute manuals and source programs or executable modules of common code system (SRAC) & Monte Carlo code (MVP)
| Install Common code system & Monte Carlo Code
Demonstrate common code
Provide all information concerning the common code system
Introduce candidates for imaginary cores*
Prepare information on current status of domestic core management (comparison between measured and calculated value)
Install common code system (SRAC) & Monte Carlo code (MVP) and execute sample problems
Present the current status on domestic neutronics calculation
Present installation status of the common code system & Monte Carlo Code**
||* Imaginary cores is changed to JRR-3 Core
** Monte Carlo Code (MVP) will be distributed after publication
( probably in October 2005)
During the opening, Dr. Yamashita presented the draft table on the status of neutronics calculation in each member countries. The detail information including the specification of research reactors involved in this activity can be obtained in Attachment B.
3. 3 Participants
The workshop was attended by 13 participants from China , Indonesia , Korea , Japan , Malaysia , Thailand and Vietnam . The list of participants is attached in Attachment C.
3. 4 Country Reports
"Current Status of Neutronics Calculation Method For CARR" by Dr. Yuan Luzheng
Standard thermal reactor neutronics codes, such as WIMS-D4, CITATION, NGFM, MCNP are used for the research reactor CARR design. Because CARR has not been critical yet, so no comparison directly between calculated results and experimental one, but accordingly to Chinese experts experience, the uncertainty in comparison with benchmark results is good enough. Although the role of MCNP is mainly acts as verification of other codes in CARR design the parameters involved in some special component and complicated geometry like control rods and beam channel effect are still provided with the help of MCNP. In order to deal with core management more conveniently especially for treatment of burn up calculation of the core, China is planning to make efforts to develop interfacing code to handle the reactor core depletion problems.
"Current Status of Neutronics Calculation Method of RSG-GAS Reactor" by Mr. Surian Pinem
The Reaktor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy (RSG GAS), formerly called MPR-30, is a pool-type, MTR-type research reactor that uses low enriched uranium (19.75 w/o) fuel elements with 2.96 gU cm-3 meat density. Originally, the core used the oxide fuel (U3 O8 -Al), but presently, the core uses the silicide fuel (U3 Si2 -Al). Routinely, the RSG-GAS reactor core management calculation by the IAFUEL code supported by the vendor of Interatom. Since the macroscopic cross section library of the IAFUEL code is dedicated for the oxide and the silicide fuel with narrow range uranium density parameters, therefore, we developed a new core management code, Batan-EQUIL-2D , for anticipating the next core conversion programs. The calculations using combination of WIMS-D4 and Batan-EQUIL-2D codes have been conducted to check the accuracy of the codes in designing the equilibrium silicide core for RSG-GAS reactor. The calculation results showed that the difference from experimental results is in the range of 1.22 % D k / k - 1.41 % D k / k , for excess reactivity. However, for the control rod worth, the relative difference from experimental results is in the range of 1.69% - 6.40%.
"Current Status of Neutronics Calculation Method of Japan Research Reactor - 3 (JRR - 3)" by Mr. Tomoaki Kato
SRAC code and MVP code are applied for neutronics analysis of JRR-3. SRAC code is mainly used for reactor design and core management. MVP code is used for making reference values for calculation results by SRAC code. SRAC code includes some elementary codes and major neutron cross-section data library. In JRR-3, collision probability calculation code PIJ, S N transport calculation code ANISN, diffusion calculation code CITATION and multi dimensional core burn up calculation code COREBN are applied for neutronics analysis. JENDL-3.2 is applied as neutron cross-section library.
SRAC code is reliable calculation code for aluminide fuel core of JRR-3 because calculation results such as excess reactivity agree to measured results very well. However, we may have some assignment concerning treatment of burnable poison (cadmium wire) in silicide fuel core of JRR-3
"The Neutronics Calculation System for the HANARO" by Dr. Soo-Youl Oh
Korea presented the status of neutronics calculation system for the HANARO. The calculations are divided into two categories, core calculation for the fuel management using the HANAFMS and support calculations using MCNP-4B. In addition to the nuclear characteristics of HANARO, methodologies of HANAFMS were presented along with the uncertainties of the system. Examples of MCNP usage in simulating irradiation equipments were presented also.
On the other hand, Korea reported the status of SRAC code installation and results of test runs, which indicated successful installation.
"Current Status of Neutronics Calculation Method of Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)" by Ms. Julia Abdul Karim
The 1 MW research reactor in Malaysia was supplied by General Atomic in 1970s and was known as Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP). RTP had reached its first criticality at 28th June 1982 and since then, various numbers of activities had been performed to maintain and optimize the reactor parameters. In 1990's a group of researchers from Josef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana , Yugoslavia had introduced neutronics codes, i.e TRIGAM to support the safety analysis of the RTP and the physics of the reactor was studied. TRIGAM was adapted from 1-D diffusion TRIGAC code. Since then, the codes have been used to perform the safety analysis of RTP. TRIGAM was capable to calculate the keff , burn-up calculation, and power and flux distribution. These parameters were used in analyzing the excess reactivity and core management of RTP. TRIGAM has limitation especially in analyzing the core calculation modeling, control rod worth, moderator temperature coefficient and so fourth. Therefore, we are looking forward to adapt the SRAC code in the reactor physics calculation and analysis especially in RTP to support the safety parameters of the reactor.
"Current Status of Neutronics Calculation Method of Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1" by Mr. Mongkol Junlanan
Mr. Mongkol Junlanan presents the overview the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) and the Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose swimming pool type reactor. The TRR-1/M1 uses uranium enriched at 20% in U-235 (LEU) and UZrH alloy as fuel. The reactor core is a hexagonal arrangement. Light water is also used as coolant and moderator. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization namely, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, beam experiments and reactor physics experiments.
TRIGAP was used for neutronics calculation of TRR-1/M1 in core management since 1990. This computer code was used for burn up calculation and reactivity prediction for the fuel loading and re-shuffling of the core.
SRAC code was obtained from JAERI in 2004 and will be used for neutronics calculation in the future.
"Current Status of Neutronics Calculation Method of the Dalat Research Reactor" by Mr. Nguyen Manh Hung
The Dalat Research Reactor (DRR) was reconstructed and upgraded from the former TRIGA MARK II reactor. Reconstruction work was begun in March 1982 and the reactor reached the first criticality on 1 November 1983. The reactor was officially inaugurated on 20 March 1984 and since then DRR has been steadily operated. DRR with nominal power of 500 kW is a light water moderated and cooled swimming pool type reactor.
Before 2002, the computer codes obtained for neutronics calculation for DRR are the code WIMSD, HEXAGA, HEXNOD and HEXA-BURNUP. Since 2002 we have received the SRAC (version SRAC95 and SRAC2002) from Japan and at this year we also have bought the MCNP4C2 from USA .
The results from all computer codes above are very useful for core management, safety operating and good agreement with experiment. We continue to exploit the codes for calculating other parameters of DRR. These codes are very good tools for future calculation of nuclear power plant and new research reactor program in our country.
The full papers of participating countries are attached as Attachment D.
3. 5 Current Status of Use of SRAC Code
The status of SRAC code installation and execution is described in Attachment E.
3. 6 Overview, Demonstration of SRAC Code Installation and Execution of Sample Problems
Overview and detailed explanation for usage of SRAC code were presented by Dr. K. Yamashita and Mr. T. Kato. System structure, data library structure, geometry model, treatment of resonance absorption, comparison between fix source mode and eigenvalue mode and definition of spatial division were explained in detail. Calculation flow, structure of input data and job control statements were explained using sample problem. By this explanation, participating countries understood basic usage of SRAC code.
3. 7 Explanation of Core Calculation Method of Japan Research Reactor-3 (JRR-3 )
As a material for acquiring calculation method of SRAC, core calculation method of Japan research reactor-3 (JRR-3) was explained by Mr. T. Kato from Japan . Detail explanation from making effective cross section data to core calculation was carried out. Guidelines for making coarse group cross-section were explained and discussed on selection of calculation module such as PIJ or ANISN. By this explanation, participating countries understood basic idea of core calculation of JRR-3.
3. 8 Demonstration and Practical Training of SRAC
Installation of SRAC code is demonstrated by Mr. T. Kato. Furthermore, making method of extended load module such as 'SRAC200m' for large calculation case is demonstrated. By this demonstration, participating countries understood installation procedure of SRAC code.
As a practical training, core calculation of JRR-3 is carried out. Core calculation method is explained step by step, and participating countries follow the calculation by using their own computers. Furthermore, participating countries discuss how to model their own domestic research reactor referring to core calculation of JRR-3. Through this training, participating countries understood basic idea of core calculation by SRAC code.
3. 9 Discussions and Summary
The present status of the neutronics calculation in each participating country was presented in detail during the workshop. Participating countries also presented their status of installing the SRAC code distributed prior to the workshop by the leading country. It was reported that some participants experienced some difficulties in installation and execution of SRAC code, however, all problems were solved during the workshop.
The participants have agreed that the cooperation among the participating countries especially having similar facilities be further enhanced. Every participant is encouraged to communicate through e-mail.
The participants reviewed and discussed the future plan prepared during the last workshop. The future activities are shown in the table below.
Project Activity for FY 2006
2nd Workshop in FY 2006
Consulting for calculation of domestic cores
Distribution of SRAC
(COREBN) manual for burn-up calculations
Distribution and consultation of MVP code
Confirmation that each country has calculated JRR-3 core as imaginary core successfully.
Instruction of core burn-up calculation of JRR-3 core
Interim evaluation of activity
Calculation of JRR-3 core as imaginary core by SRAC
Calculation of domestic core by SRAC
Presentation of JRR-3 core calculation results (keff )
Presentation of domestic core calculation results (k eff , neutron flux distribution and neutron spectrum, etc.)
Learn core burn-up calculation
Project Activity for FY 2007
3rd Workshop in FY 2007
Consulting for burn-up calculation of domestic cores by SRAC
Presentation of the results of burn-up calculation of domestic core (change of keff )
Presentation of application of SRAC for fuel management, advanced utilization, modification, etc. of domestic cores if possible.
Discussion about final report and proposal for next project
4. Round Table Discussion
4.1 Workshop Summary
Under the chair of Dr. Hideaki Yokomizo, the Chairman of URR field in Japan , and Mr. Adnan Bin Bokhari, the RRT Project Leader of Malaysia , summaries of the workshop on Neutron Activation Analysis, Tc-99m Generator Technology and Research Reactor Technology were reported by Prof. Mitsuru Ebihara, Dr. Zulkifli Mohamed Hashim and Dr. Kiyonobu Yamashita respectively. All participants of the workshop agreed on the summary reports , and the workshop ended on a positive note with summarizing comments by the National Coordinator of Japan Dr. Sueo Machi .
4.2 Additional remark at the Round Table Discussion
It was agreed to propose to the 7th FNCA Coordinators Meeting that the Philippines be the hosting country for the 2006 workshop by agreement of all participants at the FNCA 2005 Workshop on the Utilization of Research Reactors held in Malaysia .