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Workshop


FNCA 2007 WORKSHOP ON BIOFERTILIZER

Report of
FNCA2007 Workshop on Bioferilizer Project
“Multifunctional Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture”

25-29 February, 2008
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Following the agreement at the 8th FNCA Coordinators Meeting in February 7-9, 2007, Tokyo, Japan. The FNCA Workshop on Multifunctional Biofertilizer took place as follows:

Date

25 - 29 February 2008

Venue

-Best Western Premier Seri Pacific Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
-Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), Bangi, Malaysia

Host
Organisations

-Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia (MOSTI)
-Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan

Local Organiser

Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia (MOSTI)

FNCA Secretariat

Nuclear Safety Research Association (NSRA)

Participants

A total 32 participants from 8 countries, viz. China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.

Opening Session and Introductory Presentation

The Opening Session began with the welcome addresses by local host, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), represented by Dr. Khairuddin Abdul Rahim, Project Leader of Malaysia, and joint host, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan, represented by Mr. Keiichi Tabuchi. Dr. Sueo Machi, FNCA Coordinator of Japan, as well as Advisor to MEXT presented an Introductory Speech on "Major Issues of Workshop". Datuk Dr. Daud Mohamad, Director General, NUCLEAR MALAYSIA, officiated the Opening of the Workshop. And for introductory presentation, Dr. Machi presented "FNCA Activities and Report on 8th Ministerial Meeting", and Dr. Tadashi Yokoyama, Project Leader of Japan presented "Multifunctional Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture", respectively.

Country Reports

A total of 8 reports for summary of Phase I and Current Status of Biofertilizer Application were presented by each country.

Topic Discussion

As a topic discussion, "Sterilization of Carriers by Radiation or Autoclaving for Improved QA/QC of Biofertilizer Inoculants" and "Strategy for Extension of Biofertilizer in Farmers" are discussed by all participants.

Work Plan of 2008 - 2011

Scope and Work Plan of 2008-2011 of Project were discussed. Definition of "Multifunctional biofertilizer" was raised as the issue to have the concurrence of all the participants. The necessity of collaboration between nuclear institute and agricultural research group including university in each country as well as the importance of collaboration among FNCA countries was emphasized to achieve the new project. Plan of Cooperative Work among FNCA Member Countries was also discussed, and summarized as follows;

1. For application of multi-functional fertilizer, two different methods should be tested, namely,
a) combining plant growth promoting microorganisms and disease inhibiting microorganisms in one carrier (one inoculant),
b) produce two separate inoculants with different functions, and use both of them for one plant at the same time.
to find out which method is better in effect.
 
2. 1) For implementation of cooperative work on multi-functional bio-fertilizer, it was proposed to appoint coordinating country by specific plant as follows:
 
Plant Coordinating country Participating countries
 Soybean  Thailand  China, Japan, Vietnam
 Rice  Indonesia  Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand
 Banana  Malaysia  Indonesia, the Philippines
 Vegetables  Korea  Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam
 
2) Exchange of strain (non-patented, research purpose only) is important tool of cooperation. Members of workshop should inform to Prof. Dr. Yokoyama about possible microorganism to offer as soon as possible. National regulation for the exchange should be studied.
 
3. Funding for special project should be sourced from regional or international agencies.


Open Seminar and Forum on Development of Multifunctional Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture

In conjunction with FNCA Workshop on "Multifunctional Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture" a, Open Seminar and Forum was held in Malaysian Nuclear Agency, MOSTI, in Bangi, Selangor on 26th February. Attendance to the program was around 60, including participants and guests from universities and the local biofertilizer industry. The Welcoming Address was by Dr. Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid, Deputy Director General (Research and Technology Development Program), Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Dr. Nahrul discussed the importance of crop production not only for food but also for energy, the importance of enhanced collaboration among institutions in the country and amongst FNCA countries. Then 3 presentations about radiation technology for sustainable development, and current states of biofertilizer research in Japan and Malaysia were delivered. After that panel members held a discussion about development of biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture.


Technical Visits

The participants visited the Biofertilizer Plant, Gamma Garden and the Sinagama Irradiation Plant ant Nuclear Malaysia Tech Park located in Jalan Dengkel, where the participants were briefed on the activities and operation of each facility. The participants also visited Putrajaya, the administrative center for the federal government of Malaysia.


Proposed host country for 2009 workshop

The participants agreed that the host country to be chosen at the 9th FNCA Coordinators Meeting taking place in Tokyo, Japan at March 10-11, 2008.

Deliberation and Acceptance of Minutes

The Minutes were discussed and agreed upon by all participants in the workshop. This will be reported at the 9th FNCA Coordinators Meeting to be held at March 10-11, 2008 in Tokyo, Japan.


Minutes of
FNCA2007 Workshop on Bioferilizer Project
“Multifunctional Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture”
Draft

25-29 February, 2008
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Following the agreement at the 8th FNCA Coordinators Meeting in February 7-9, 2007, Tokyo, Japan. The FNCA Workshop on Multifunctional Biofertilizer took place as follows:

Date

25 - 29 February 2008

Venue

-Best Western Premier Seri Pacific Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
-Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), Bangi, Malaysia

Host
Organisations

-Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia (MOSTI)
-Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan

Local Organiser

Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia (MOSTI)

FNCA Secretariat

Nuclear Safety Research Association (NSRA)

Participants

A total 20 participants from 8 countries, viz. China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Host country Malaysia also has 12 observers.
(Please refer to Attachment I).

Workshop Program
The Program is as in Attachment II.

Opening Session
The Opening Session began with the welcome addresses by local host, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), represented by Dr. Khairuddin Abdul Rahim, Project Leader, Malaysia, and joint host, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan, represented by Mr. Keiichi Tabuchi. Honorable Dr. Sueo Machi, FNCA Coordinator of Japan, as well as Advisor to MEXT presented an Introductory Speech on “Major Issues of Workshop”. Honorable Datuk Dr. Daud Mohamad, Director General, NUCLEAR MALAYSIA, officiated the Opening of the Workshop.

Session 1: Introductory Presentation
Chair: Mr. Adnan Haji Khalid, Senior Director (Management), NUCLEAR MALAYSIA; FNCA Coordinator of Malaysia

The session started with the introduction of participants to the Workshop. Dr. Sueo Machi presented “FNCA Activities and Report on 8th Ministerial Meeting”. This was followed by a Summary of Phase I and Outline of New Project on “Multifunctional Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture” by Prof.Dr. Tadashi Yokoyama, Project Leader of Japan.


Session 2: Country Reports (Summary of Phase I and Current Status of Biofertilizer Application in Each Country)
Chair: Ms. Julieta Anarna, the Philippines - Part I
Dr. Mat Rasol Awang, Malaysia - Part II

A total of eight reports, each from Project Leaders/Participants from FNCA Countries were presented.

Country reports were delivered as in the following:

Dr. Pham Van Toan, Vietnam, on “Country Report of Vietnam”
  1. Isolation of more than 300 strains having the N-fixing, P.solubilizing, PGPR or pathogen antagonistic activity and selection of 10 strains for the inoculants production
  2. Testing the effect of irradiation on the carrier sterilization in comperation with other sterilization methods.
  3. Conducting 6 field experiments to evaluating the effect of biofertilizer on the growth, yield and quality of legumes, vegetable, rice, coffee and pepper.
  4. Conducting 10 field demonstrations to show the effects of biofertilizer to the farmers.
  5. Setting up the extension activity to promote the biofertilizer

·Ms. Soertini Gandanegara, Indonesia, on “Development of Azora, PGPR - Biofertilizer for Corn”
  In the first phase of the project, PGPR - biofertilizer (multi-strains) was developed for corn through screening of single of locally isolated strains, evaluation on their association mixed strains effectiveness with corn in the greenhouse and the field. Formulation of multi-strains of M14 reduced 50% of the recommended NPK without significant different in grain yield. The formulation later named as Azora.
  To broaden the use of Azora biofertilizer, evaluation on the effectiveness were carried out in vegetables. Results showed the biofertilizer reduced by 50% of required recommended farmyard manure (FYM) with increase yield of vegetable (lettuce by up to 40% as compared to FYM). The introduction of the biofertilizer to farmers will be continued for the following years.

·Dr. Young-Kuen Lee, Korea, on “Development of Microbial Pesticide by Radiation Mutation”
  1. Phosphate solubilizing biofertilizer has been administered and tested in lettuce. It resulted in the increment of productivity at the extent of 3 % - 13 %.
  2. The development of biopesticide was introduced. B. lentimorbus WJ5 which had antifungal activity against 10 kinds of phytopathogenic fungi was isolated and identified by analysis of 16s rRNA.

Improved mutant of antifungal activity, B. lentimorbus WJ5, was induced by gamma-ray radiation. Biopesticide was formulated with this mutant and 4 kinds of carriers. It was proven to be effective by the pot and field experiments on the diseases of red pepper, Chinese cabbage and radish.

Dr. Achara Nuntagij, Thailand, on “Biofertilizer in Thailand”:
  Study growth and survival of Rhizobia in Indonesian irradiated peat and Thailand peat using plate count technique. The number of survival Rhizobia increase about ten times until the fifth months after incubation. The survival declined during 7 - 11th month. The longer incubation time more than two years may cause negative affects on the survival of Rhizobia.
  The comparison of the utilization of irradiation and autoclaved peat for productivity and nitrogen fixation of mungbean was done using RCB with 4 replications by field trials. First year study in 2006, the highest seed yield was observed on plants receiving the inoculant prepared in the irradiated peat. The farmer's profit will increase 65 USD/ha and 63 USD/ha as compared with control. The application of NPK for the production of mungbean cause defective in economic by loss of money. Year 2007, in consistent with the results obtained in 2006, using irradiated peat gave the net profit 85 USD/ha higher than the control. No profit was gained from intensive application of NPK.

Dr. Tadashi Yokoyama, Japan, on “Current Status and Future Direction on Commercial Production and Use of Biofertilizer in Japan”.
  Japanese government does not authorize most of bi-fertilizers with exception on VA mycorhiza. Production of the VA mycorhiza was thirty-five tons in Japan at 2004. Tokachi federation of Agricultural Cooperatives is the major organization producing and distributing the Rhizobium bio-fertilizers. In TFAC, 3 kinds of biofertilizer are produced and sold presently. About 80% of farmers in Hokkaido used these biofertilizers which showed 35% increase of soybean seeds production in field test at 2000.

Ms. Juliet Anarna and Ms. Marcelina Palis, the Philippines, on “Current Status of Biofertilizer in the Philippines”
The biofertilizer industry in the Philippines has a great potential in reducing extensive use chemical fertilizer in the Philippines. However, biofertilizer are not yet fully utilized by Filipino farmers except for Azospirillum (BIO-N). Due to the government concern on environmental hazards brought about by the continue use of chemical fertilizers, the Philippine government through the Department of Agriculture has adopted a policy of promoting the combined use of microbial, organic and bioorganic fertilizers. Biofertilizer production in the Philippines has been on-going for more than 30 years. This has been successfully carried-out using many species of soil microbes. However, biofertilizer utilization is still low because farmers perceived these biofertilizers as of poor quality because no immediate effect on their use can be seen on the crop. Nowadays, due to government intervention and support, farmers are slowly adopting biofertilizers in their crop production systems. The Philippine government has now adopted a policy of promoting the combined application of inorganic and bio-organic fertilizers in growing major crops such as rice, corn and high-value commercial crops.
  Technologies for mass production of biofertilizers are available in the country.

Dr. Khairuddin Abdul Rahim, Malaysia, on “Harnessing Indigenous Biofertilizer Microorganisms and Nuclear Technology for Enhancement of the “Green Technology” in Malaysian Agroindustry”. The report included past and current projects, collaborative work between institutions, achievements in development of new biofertilizer products, innovation and publication. Acceptability of biofertilizer products by end users was discussed.

Dr. Fan Bingquan, China, delivered a country report titled “Application of Biofertilizers and Plans for Phase II in China”
  There were six kinds of biofertilizers used in China, which were rhizonia inoculum, associative nitrogen fixation inoculum, silicate bacteria inoculum, antagonistic inoculum, P-solubilizing inoculum, and pesticides-degrading inoculum. The target crops were soybean, paddy rice, corn, potatoes, wheat, peanut, sugar beet, cotton, vegetables and fruit trees. Fruit tree achieved the highest yield- increasing effects. About 2.5 million tons of biofertilizers was produced in 2006 and 80 species of microorganisms had been used for biofertilizer production in China. In next phase, we will develop multi-functional biofertilizers on increasing phosphate use efficiency, degrading residues of pesticides, and preventing from or alleviating continuous cropping problems in soybean, watermelon, cotton and vegetables.

Session 3: Scope and Work Plan of 2008-2011 of Project
Chair: Dr. Issay Narumi, Japan

In the session, Dr. Sueo Machi proposed objectives of new project and points of discussion (Attachment III). Each country delivered opinions about his proposal, and basically agreed with all 12 items of his proposal. Definition of “Maltifunctional biofertilizer” was raised as the issue to have the concurrence of all the participants. Prof.Dr. Iswandi Anas pointed out that bioinsectcides, which have an important role for the integrated pest management (IPM), are also possible inoculants of multifunctional biofertilizer. Dr. Mat Rasol Awang pointed out that economic evaluation is an item to be done in the new project. The necessity of collaboration between nuclear institute and agricultural research group including university in each country as well as the importance of collaboration among FNCA countries was emphasized to achieve the new project.

Lead Speeches on Possible Benefits of Multifunctional Biofertilizer and Its Application were delivered as in the following:

Dr. Masataka Aino, Japan, on “Management of Relevant Vegetable Disease by Bio-pesticides in Japan”
  Bio-pesticides are considered to be a more environmentally sound agents than the chemical counterparts for controlling crop diseases. Up to date, 14 bio-pesticides have been officially registered for various vegetable diseases in Japan. The registered bio-pesticides for a commercial use in Japan are to introduce and a brief explanation is made for the management of relevant vegetable diseases by bio-pesticides. Finally, a breakthrough technology which enables vegetable seeds to coat with the active ingredients of bio-pesticide is introduced in some detail.
Point of discussion:1)Guarantee of the effect of bio-pesticide. 2)Farmers acceptance of bio-pesticide. 3)Movement of the endphytic bacteria contained the bio-pesticide

Dr. Khairuddin Abdul Rahim, Malaysia, who deliberated the possible benefits including supply of nutrients or making nutrients more available to plants, biopesticidal properties, protection against pest and diseases. A good example of a multifunctional biofertilizer is the arbuscular mycorrhiza, several of which have reported to have the above characteristics.

Session 3: Scope and Work Plan of 2008-2011 of Project (continued)
Chair: Dr. Pham Van Toan, Vietnam

In this session presentations were as follows:

Associate Professor Dr. Radziah Othman, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia, on “Application of Mixed Inoculant (AMF and PGPR) on Crops”

Prof. Dr. Tadashi Yokoyama, Japan, on “Proposed Work Plan from FY 2008-2011”.
Challenges and discussion points as below:

1) Single strain or mixed strains for the development of multifunctional biofertilizers.
2) Collaboration between nuclear agency, universities and department of agriculture, and representation of members from the three groups from each country in future meetings.
3) Benefits and economic effects of radiation
4) Selection of suitable carrier e.g. saw dust, peat
5) Constrain of biofertilizer- different soil type e.g. acidic soil, alkaline soil
6) Collaboration of the countries in selection of isolates to test in each region
7) Selection of target crops such as rice, legume crops.
8) Role of Biopesticides
9) Field test of biofertilizers
10) Methods of monitoring the isolates in field

Prof. Dr. Iswandi Anas, Indonesia, delivered a lead speech titled “Target Plants of Multifunctional Biofertilizer”.
Rice, corn and soybean are the most important food crops in Indonesia. Government of Republic Indonesia supports strongly any effort to increase the production in order to reduce import of these food crops. A new system of rice production called as System of Rice Intensification (S.R.I) is developing very significantly. The main criteria of this new technique of rice cultivation are using younger seedling (8 days old), planting one seedling per hill, wider space (30 x 30 cm) and less water instead of flooded condition. This new method of rice cultivation makes the use of bio-fertilizer possible. To increase soybean production, in 2008 Government of Indonesia planned to increase the growing area of soybean by 600,000 ha. This means that the demand for Rhizobium inoculant in increasing. The growing area of corn is also increasing in the recent years.
However, due to the environment considerations, the use of inorganic fertilizers should be limited. In the last a few years, the demand for organic products world wide is increasing and this is also the case in Indonesia. The role of bio-fertilizers (nitrogen fixing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing microbes, mycorrhizae and plant antagonist) in production of organic product such as vegetable is also very important. Therefore rice, corn, soybean and vegetable are the main target plants for bio-fertilizer used in Indonesia.
There are several big forest plantation companies in Indonesia. These companies mainly grow Acacia tree where Rhizobium inoculation is necessary. Millions of seedling are needed per year. To have good seedling, inoculation with Rhizobium is a must. Therefore, the demand for bio-fertilizer is increasing.

Dr. Issay Narumi, Japan, presented on “R&D of Microbial Mutation Breeding using Ion Beams for Multifunctional Biofertilizer”.
  Ion beam breeding has become an effective method not only to create new varieties of plants but also to generate useful mutants of microbes. This radiation-based technology can be applied to develop new multifunctional biofertilizers. Likewise, gamma-irradiation is also applicable to improve the function of bifertilizer as shown in the country report of Korea. FNCA countries were encouraged to explore this possibility based on the already established protocol, if necessary.

Lead speech on “Work plan 2008 - 11 including pot and field test” was by given Dr. Shotaro Ando, Japan. The major points were as follows: 1) In pot and field experiments, negative control should be included. The negative control means carrier without microorganisms or sterilized carrier with organism. Sterilization by irradiation of carrier with microbe provides good negative control. 2) Field experiment on different soil also important and isolation of local strain, which overcomes competition with indigenouos microbes, should be continued. 3) Proposed work plan of pot and field experiments were summarized. As a common target, legumes including soybean and rice were targeted by 5 and 3 countries, respectively. 4) Importance of size of plot in field test was also pointed out by Indonesia. 5) Malaysia proposed banana to be one of the target crops, because of its importance in this region and problem of wilt disease caused by Fusarium. The proposal was supported by Indonesia and the Philippines.

Session 4: Sterilization of Carriers by Radiation or Autoclaving for Improved QA/QC of Biofertilizer Inoculants
Chair: Dr. Sueo Mach

Lead speeches were as in the following:

Dr. Pham Van Toan, Vietnam, on “Experience showing better QA for longer shelf life in case of radiation sterilized carriers in Vietnam”.
  The major points were as follows: 1) Radiation sterilization have an advantage in the carrier quality, the sheflive of benefit microorganisms and the reduction of contaminants. 2) radiation sterilization can destroy the spore forming microorganisms better and strictly, the cost in this case more cheaper than autoclaving. 3) Inoculant production in large scale needs the radiation sterilization. 3).

Ms. Soertini Gandanegara, Indonesia, on “Current problem of QA/ QC”.
  Irradiation sterilization has been proved as the effective and efficient technology for sterilization of biofertilizer carrier. It is extremely important for the consumers to determine the effective radiation dose by implementing Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of their own carrier. Problems on QA will arise if they fail to do so, whereby the contaminant may inhibit growth of the target micrroorganism.

Dr. Young-Kuen Lee, Korea, presented a lead speech on “Cost of irradiation of carriers by 25 kGy in comparison with autoclaving”.
  Radiation sterilization for the carriers of biofertilizers could be preferred. Because it could result in 1) the enlargement of shelf life of multifunctional microbes and 2) elimination of toxic microbes in biofertilizers. In order to save radiation cost, we'd better observe the initial bioburden from which radiation dose of sterilization could be deriven. Sterilization dose can be taken below 25 kGy depend on the initial bioburden. WHO recommended that the possibility of sterilization failure could be 1/1,000 in case of the items that is not directly contact with human.

The meeting agreed on following points:
  1. Carriers sterilized by radiation of 20-30kGy are better than thermally sterilized carrier in terms of shelf life of inoculants.
  2. With reference to the report of Indonesia in 2006, cost of irradiation of carrier (peat/filtered mud) in Indonesia was IDR 44/package at 25 kGy and IDR 84 package at 50 kGy while cost by autoclaving was IDR 27 + labor. The cost of irradiation is not significant considering the price of BF price is IDR 20,000/package.
  3. Radiation sterilization is more suitable for larger scale production of BF. Sterilization by using autoclave at high temperature may be more convenient for small scale local production of BF.
  4. Cost of irradiation of carriers should be calculated including transportation expenses of carriers in each country in comparison with autoclaving. This cost analysis should be carried out in 2008.
Session 5: Strategy for Extension of Biofertilizer in Farmers
Chair: Dr. Achara Nuntagij, Thailand

This session presented by lead speech from The Philippines, Ms. Juliet Anarna and Indonesia, Prof. Dr. Iswandi Anas.

Ms. Juliet Anarna, The Philippines, delivered a lead speech.
  Biofertilizer technology to be successfully accepted and transferred to the farmers needs support of the government. The awareness on biofertilizer can be attained through establishment of techno demo farms, seminars, and trainings for farmers and technicians. Massive campaign and information dissemination on biofertilizer are also some of the strategies in the promotion of the technology. Exhibits, trade fairs and tri-media approach will also help the farmers to be educated on the present technologies available. Linkages and collaborative work with both private and government sectors are also needed for awareness of biofertilizer.

Prof. Dr. Iswandi Anas, Indonesia, delivered a lead speech.
  Government support in extension of bio-fertilizer is very important. Standardization of bio-fertilizer should be established using a set of criteria. Standardization of bio-fertilizers is meant to keep a better quality of bio-fertilizer and to assure the farmers/customers get good quality of bio-fertilizer. Therefore, government should establish a neutral institution to examine the quality of the bio-fertilizers sold in the market.
Demonstration plot of the use of bio-fertilizer is very effective way to introduce bio-fertilizer to the farmers. Campaign of bio-fertilizers through media such as broschure, radio and televisions are necessary. Linkage to farmers unions and particularly with the leaders are necessary. Linkage with fertilizer company is also necessary to speed up the extension of bio-fertilizers to the farmers.

This speech session covered the following issues:

1) Government policy
2) Field demostration plot - Farmers easy to accept when they see the result
3) Campaign by media (eg. television, radio)
4) Linkage with farmers - Researcher educated farmer
5) Gaining acceptance by plantation industries, due to “Green Policy”
6) Linkage with fertilizer companies
7) Advantages and benefits biofertilizer (environmental protection and cost) - Cost of biofertilizer should be lower or same as NPK.

Session 6: Work Plan 2008-11
Chair: Dr. Khairuddin Abdul Rahim, Malaysia

The following lead speeches were delivered:

Prof. Dr. Tadashi Yokoyama, Japan,
Definition of biofertilizer in Phase I:
Biofertilizer is a substance which contains characterized living microorganisms. When applied to seed, plant surfaces, or soil, the microorganisms colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of plant nutrients to the host plant.

Some examples for work plan of Phase II:
In case of the Philippine, Azospirillum strains in Bio-N are very important. If the Philippine can establish an irradiation sterilization method for Bio-N instead of your autoclave method, this is a fruitful result for FNCA biofertilizer project.
In case of Thailand, Thailand has many excellent inoculants and many achievements of biofertilizer development, but an amount of production of biofertilizers is gradually decreasing by problems of quality control of carriers containing inoculants. If Thailand can establish an irradiation sterilization method for her biofertilizers and use of the biofertilizers by Thai Farmers can increase, this is also a fruitful result for FNCA biofertilizer project.
And, if you can develop a new inoculant containing Bradyrhizobium and AMF, this material practically becomes a multi functional biofertilizer.


Dr. Pham Van Toan, Vietnam,
Points of discussion:
1) Focus on inoculant production
2) Biocontrol vs biofertilizer
3) Carrier sterilization by irradiation
4) Endophytes microorganisms

Workplan for each country are as in Attachment IV.

Session 6: Plan of Cooperative Work among FNCA Member Countries
Chair: Prof. Dr. Iswandi Anas, Indonesia

The following lead speeches were delivered:

Ms. Marcelina Palis, the Philippines
Points of discussion:
1) Implementation paper
2) Examples of cooperation
Selected crops:
  Banana - Malaysia, Philippines
Rice- Indonesia, Philippines
Vegetables- Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, China

Selected microorganisms:

- Exchange of strains among countries. Regulation of some countries should be taken into consideration.
- Mutant strains.
3) Exchange of microorganisms within countries were not allowed due to some regulation

Dr. Fan Bingquan, China
Points of discussion:
1) Stronger cooperation - Supported by government (Financial)
2) Common target plants of interest
3) Exchange of information eg. workshop
4) Start the cooperation within scientist to scientist
5) International fund
6) Include other countries such as Europe
7) Methodology to cooperation of the inoculants
8) Preparation program in cooperation

Prof. Emeritus Dr. Nantakorn Boonkerd, Thailand
Points of discussion:
1) Training program - participants from various countries
2) Exchange information through e-mail, mailing list etc
3) Cooperation work on rice, legumes and banana

Discussion was conducted based on power point paper presented by Ms. Marcelina Palis of the Philippines followed by comments by Dr. Fan Bingquan of China and Prof. Dr. Nantakorn Boonkerd of Thailand.

Summary and conclusion
  1. For application of multi-functional fertilizer, two different methods should be tested, namely,
    a) combining plant growth promoting microorganisms and disease inhibiting microorganisms in one carrier (one inoculant),
    b) produce two separate inoculants with different functions, and use both of them for one plant at the same time.
    to find out which method is better in effect.
  2. 1) For implementation of cooperative work on multi-functional bio-fertilizer, it was proposed to appoint coordinating country by specific plant as follows:

    Plant Coordinating country Participating countries
    Soybean Thailand China, Japan, Vietnam
    Rice Indonesia Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand
    Banana Malaysia Indonesia, the Philippines
    Vegetables Korea Indonesia, Malaysia,
    the Philippines, Vietnam

    2) Exchange of strain (non-patented, research purpose only) is important tool of cooperation. Members of workshop should inform to Prof. Dr. Yokoyama about possible microorganism to offer as soon as possible. National regulation for the exchange should be studied.
  3. Funding for special project from regional or international agencies.
Open Seminar and Forum on Development of Multifunctional Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture

In conjunction with FNCA Workshop on “Multifunctional Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture” a, Open Seminar and Forum was held in Malaysian Nuclear Agency, MOSTI, in Bangi, Selangor on Tuesday, 26 February 2008. Attendance to the program was around 60, including participants and guests from universities and the local biofertilizer industry. The Welcoming Address was by Dr. Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid, Deputy Director General (Research and Technology Development Program), Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Dr. Nahrul discussed the importance of crop production not only for food but also for energy, the importance of enhanced collaboration among institutions in the country and amongst FNCA countries.

Open Seminar
Three papers were delivered in the Open Seminar, as in the following:

Dr. Sueo Machi, FNCA Coordinator of Japan and Advisor to MEXT presented a paper titled “Radiation Technology for Sustainable Development”

Mrs. Suriza Anua, Manager, Malaysian Agri Hi-Tech Sdn Bhd related the experience of the company in a paper titled “Biofertilizer in Malaysian Agriculture and Potential of Radiation Technology to Enhance Biofertilizer Production: TRICHOGOLD”

Dr. Shotaro Ando, Japan, delivered a paper on “Biofertilizer Application in Japan and World Trend”. Contents were as follows: 1) biofertilizer products in Japan, 2) conflict with “EM”, 3) proposal of evaluation method of microbial materials for agriculture, 4) new methods to trace inoculated microbe, and 5) requirement of biofertilizer for biomass crops.

Forum
Dr. Sueo Machi, FNCA Coordinator of Japan, chaired the Forum, with the following Panel Members:
Professor Dr. Zulkifli Haji Shamsuddin, Malaysia
Professor Emeritus Dr. Nantakorn Boonkerd, Thailand
Professor Dr. Iswandi Anas, Indonesia
Dr. Pham Van Toan,Vietnam

The Chairman indicated the program of Open Seminar and Forum was highly recommended as part of FNCA Workshop, as discussed at FNCA Senior Officials Meeting and FNCA Coordinators Meeting.

Points of discussion:
  1. Status of biofertilizer industry and its acceptance for this region.
  2. Crop production, food safety
  3. Extension programs, strategies
  4. New multifunctional biofertilizers
  5. Biofertilizer standards, policy, regulation, legislation
  6. Cooperation between institutions in each country
  7. Cooperative framework among FNCA countries for biofertilizer project
Important Points:
  1. Role of biofertilizer in sustainable agriculture
  2. Role of nuclear technology in development of biofertilizer (mutation, sterilization and quality)
  3. Strategies of extension of biofertilizer
  4. The difficulities of biofertilizer

Technical Visits
The participants visited the Biofertilizer Plant, Gamma Garden and the Sinagama Irradiation Plant ant Nuclear Malaysia Tech Park located in Jalan Dengkel, where the participants were briefed on the activities and operation of each facility. The participants also visited Putrajaya, the administrative center for the federal government of Malaysia.
The visits were much appreciated by the participants.

Proposed host country for 2009 workshop
The participants agreed that the host country to be chosen at the 9th FNCA Coordinators Meeting taking place in Tokyo, Japan at March 10-11, 2008.

Deliberation and Acceptance of Minutes
The Minutes were discussed and agreed upon by all participants in the workshop. This will be reported at the 9th FNCA Coordinators Meeting to be held at March 10-11, 2008 in Tokyo, Japan.


Attachments:
  1. List of Participants and Observers
  2. Program
  3. Session 3 (Dr. Machi's summary)
  4. Work Plan 2008-2011

Program of
FNCA2007 Workshop on Bioferilizer Project
“Multifunctional Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture”

25-29 February, 2008
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Co-hosted by Malaysian Nuclear Agency, MOSTI, Malaysia, and MEXT, Japan
 
25 February (Monday)
Opening Session
9:00 -9:05 Welcome Remarks
Dr. Khairuddin Abdul Rahim
Project Leader of Malaysia
Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), MOSTI
9:05-9:15 Welcome Remarks
Mr. Keiichi Tabuchi
MEXT Japan
9:15-9:25 Introductory Speech: Major issues of Workshop
Dr. Sueo Machi
FNCA Coordinator of Japan
9:25-9:30 Opening Address for the Workshop
Datuk Dr. Daud Mohamad
Director General
Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), MOSTI
9:30-9:40 Introduction of participants
9:40-9:50 Group photography
9:50-10:10 Coffee Break
Session 1: Introductory Presentation
Chair: Mr. Adnan Hj Khalid, Malaysia
10:10-10:30 FNCA Activities and Report on 8th Ministerial Meeting
Dr. Sueo Machi
10:30-10:50 Summary of Phase 1 and Outline of New Project on “Multifunctional Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture”
Prof. Dr. Tadashi Yokoyama
Project Leader of Japan
Session 2: Country Reports (Summary of Phase 1 and Current Status of Biofertilizer Application in each country) Part I
Chair: Ms. Julieta Anarna, The Philippines
10:50-12:30 Vietnam
Indonesia
Korea
12:30-1400 Lunch Break
Session 2 Country Reports (Summary of Phase 1 and Current Status of Biofertilizer Application in each country) Part II
Chair: Dr Mat Rasol Awang, Malaysia
14:00-15:30 Japan
Thailand
The Philippines
Malaysia
15:30-15:45 Coffee Break
Session 3: Scope and Work Plan of New Phase of Project
Chair: Dr. Issay Narumi, Japan
15:45-15:55 Objectives of the New Phase and Major Points of Discussion
Dr. Sueo Machi
15:55-17:30 Possible Benefits of Multifunctional Biofertilizer and its Application
Lead speech by Dr. Masataka Aino, Japan
Dr. Khairuddin Abdul Rahim, Malaysia

Discussion

20:00-22:30 Official Reception Dinner
(Venue: Restoran Seri Melayu, Jalan Conlay, Kuala Lumpur)
Hosted by Director General, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, MOSTI
   
26 February (Tuesday)
Open Seminar at Malaysian Nuclear Agency
(Seminar Hall, Block 11, Nuclear Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor)
9:00-9:10 Opening Remarks
Dr. Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid
Deputy Director General (Research & Technology Development Program)Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), MOSTI
9:10-9:40 “Radiation Technology for Sustainable Development“
Dr. Sueo Machi
Adviser to MEXT Japan
9:40-10:10 “Biofertilizer in Malaysian Agriculture and Potential of Radiation Technology to Enhance Biofertilizer Production”
Mrs. Suriza Anua
Manager (Production)
Malaysian Agri Hi-Tech Sdn. Bhd (MYAGRI), Malaysia
10:10-10:40 “Biofertilizer Application in Japan and World Trend”
Dr. Shotaro ANDO
National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, Japan
10:40-11:00 Tea Break
11:00-12:45 Panel Discussion
Chair: Dr. Sueo Machi
FNCA Coordinator of Japan

·Panel Members
Prof. Dr. Zulkifli Haji Shamsuddin, Malaysia
Prof. Emeritus Dr. Nantakorn Boonkerd, Thailand
Prof. Dr. Iswandi Anas, Indonesia
Dr. Pham Van Toan, Vietnam
12:45-14:00 Lunch Break
14:00-16:00 Visit to Nuclear Malaysia facilities
16:00-18:00 Sightseeing @ Putrajaya
 
27 February (Wednesday)
Session 3: Scope and work Plan of New Phase of Project (continued)
Chair: Dr. Pham Van Toan, Vietnam
9:00-10:00 Selection of mixed microorganism and effects of the microbial consortium
Lead Speech by Prof. Dr. Nantakorn, Thailand
Lead Speech by Prof. Zulkifli Hj. Shamsuddin/ Dr. Radziah Othman,
Malaysia
10:00-11:00 Target plants of multifunctional biofertilizer
Lead Speech by Dr. Issay Narumi, Japan
Lead Speech by Prof. Dr. Iswandi Anas, Indonesia
11:00-12:30 Country Report China by Dr. Fan Bingquan
Work plan 2008-11 including pot and field tests
Lead speech by Dr. Shotaro Ando, Japan
12:30-14:00 Lunch Break
Session 4 Sterilization of Carriers by Radiation or Autoclaving for Improved QA/QC of Biofertilizer Inoculants
Chair: Dr. Sueo Machi, Japan
14:00-14:30 Experience showing better QA for longer shelf life in case of radiation sterilized carriers in Vietnam
Lead speech by Dr. Pham Van Toan, Vietnam
Current problem of QA/QC
Lead speech by Ms. Soertini Gandanegara, Indonesia
14:30-15:00 Availability of existing radiation facilities and necessary arrangement for cooperation between agriculture center and radiation center in each country
15:00-15:30 Cost of irradiation of carriers by 25 kGy in comparison with autoclaving
Lead speech by Dr. Young-Keun Lee, Korea
15:30-15:45 Coffee Break
Session 5: Strategy for Extension of Biofertilizer in Farmers
Chair: Dr. Achara Nuntagji, Thailand
15:45-17:30 Lead speeches by Ms. Julieta Anarna, The Philippines
Lead speeches by Prof. Dr. Iswandi Anas, Indonesia

Discussion
Major issues of discussion
- Government policy
- Field demonstration and campaign by media
- Linkage with farmers union and fertilizer companies
- Advantage and benefits of biofertilizer in terms of environmental protection and cost
 
28 February (Thursday)
Session 6: Work plan 2008-11
Chair: Dr. Khairuddin Abdul Rahim, Malaysia
9:00-9:20 Lead speech and proposal by Prof. Dr. Tadashi Yokoyama, Japan
Lead speech and proposal by Dr Pham Van Toam, Vietnam
9:20-10:30 Country program plan by each country
- The Philippines
10:30-10:45 Coffee Break
10:45-12:00 Country program plan by each country (continued)
- Vietnam
- Thailand
- Malaysia
- Japan
- Indonesia
- China
- Korea
12:00-13:30 Lunch Break
13:30-16:30 Plan of Cooperative Work among FNCA Member Countries
Chair: Prof. Dr. Iswandi Anas, Indonesia
Lead Speeches by Ms. Marcelina Palis, The Philippines
Dr. Fan Bingquan, China
Prof. Dr. Nantakorn Boonkerd, Thailand

Points of discussion
-

Common objectives

- Selected microorganisms
- Selected plants
-

Pot tests, field tests

-

Sharing of work

-

Time schedule

 
29 February (Friday)
Session 7: Minutes and Closing
9:30 -11:00 Confirmation of Minutes
11:00-11:20 Coffee Break
11:20-12:20 Closing Remarks
Prof Dr Iswandi Anas, Indonesia
Prof. Dr. Tadashi Yokoyama, Japan
Dr. Khairuddin Abdul Rahim, Malaysia

List of Participants
FNCA2007 Workshop on Bioferilizer Project
“Multifunctional Biofertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture”

25-29 February, 2008
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


1

China

Dr. FAN Bingquan

Vice Director of Division of Agricultural Microbial Resources and Utilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Vice Director of Agricultural Culture Collection of China (ACCC)

2

Indonesia

Ms. Soertini Gandanegara

Senior Research Scientist
Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Section
Division of Agriculture
Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology
National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN)

3

Indonesia

Prof Dr. Iswandi Anas

Bogor Agricultural University, Head of of the Laboratory of Soil Biotechnology Department of Soil Sciences and Land Resources, Fac. of Agriculture

4

Korea

Dr. LEE Young-Keun

Principal Researcher, Advanced radiation Technology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

5

Malaysia

Dr. Khairuddin Bin Abdul Rahim

Senior Research Officer/Manager
Bioindustry Group
Division of Agrotechnology and Biosciences
Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), MOSTI

6

Malaysia

Mr. Ahamad Sahali Mardi

Manager, Agromanagement Group
Division of Agrotechnology and Biosciences
Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), MOSTI

7

Malaysia

Dr. Mat Rasol Awang

Manager, Bioprocess Group
Division of Agrotechnology and Biosciences
Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA)

8

The Philippines

Ms. Julieta Anarna

University Researcher I, National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (BIOTECH)

9

The Philippines

Ms. Marcelina J. Palis

Supervising Agriculturist and Chief, Soil Biology Section, Soil and Water Resources Research Division, Bureau of Soils and Water Management , Department of Agriculture

10

Thailand

Dr. Achara Nuntagij

Senior Researcher
Soil Micro-Biology Group
Division of Soil Science
Department of Agriculture (DOA)

11

Thailand

Prof Dr. Nantakorn Boonkerd

Emeritus Professor, School of Biotechnology, Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Suranaree University of Technology

12

Viet Nam

Mr. Luong Huu Thanh

Research officer, Department of Microbiology, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute

13

Viet Nam

Dr. Pham Van Toan

Director of Office for Biotechnology Program, Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development

14

Japan

Dr. Tadashi Yokoyama

Doctor of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

15

Japan

Dr. Issay Narumi

Group Leader, Principal researcher,
Gene Resource Resaearch Group,
Quantum Beam Science Directorate Radiation-applied Biology Division,
Japan Atomic Energy Agency

16

Japan

Dr. Masataka Aino

Plant Protection Department,
Agricultural Technology Institute
Hyogo Prefectural Technology Center for Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries

17

Japan

Dr. Shotaro ANDO

Research Leader, Forage Production and Agro-Environment Research Team, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science,

18

Japan

Dr. Sueo MACHI

FNCA coordinator of Japan

19

Japan

Mr. TABUCHI

Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)

20

Japan

Ms. Chiaki INOKOSHI

Senior Member, International Affairs and Research Department,
Nuclear Safety Research Association (NSRA)

Observer

1

Malaysia

Phua Choo Kwai Hoe

Research Officer,
Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), MOSTI

2

Malaysia

Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid

Research Officer,
Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), MOSTI

3

Malaysia

Pauline Liew Woan Ying

Research Officer,
Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), MOSTI

4

Malaysia

Rosnani Abdul Rashid

Research Officer,
Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), MOSTI

5

Malaysia

Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman

Research Officer,
Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), MOSTI

6

Malaysia

Maznah Mahmud

Research Officer,
Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUCLEAR MALAYSIA), MOSTI

7

Malaysia

Prof. Dr Zulkifli Hj Shamsuddin

Contract Professor
Universiti Putra Malaysia

8

Malaysia

Accociated Prof. Dr Radziah Othman

Associate Professor
Universiti Putra Malaysia


Attachment III (Session 3 Dr. Machi’s summary)

Objectives of New Project on "Multi-functional Bio-fertilizer for Sustainable Development and Points of Discussion
  1. Environmental pollution caused by excess use of chemical fertilizer to increase plant yield is global concern even though efficient production to supply enough amount of food is crucial for welfare of people.
  2. In order to address this dilemma, application of bio-fertilizer replacing chemical fertilizer as much as possible should be feasible and appropriate approach.
  3. In this respect the new project aims to develop quality assured multi-functional bio-fertilizer inoculants by mixing different types of microorganism having functions of promoting plant growth as well as inhibiting plant diseases. Microorganisms will be first selected from conventional strains. For long term development, if appropriate radiation induced microbial mutation will be studied.
  4. Radiation is proven technology for highly efficient sterilization by killing microorganisms and widely used to sterilize medical supplies and food packages.
  5. For the production of bio-fertilizer inoculants radiation sterilization technique can be used to produce clean carriers for microorganism instead of high temperature steam sterilization in autoclaves, which is more labor energy intensive. This project should demonstrate radiation sterilization of carriers is better in quality to produce inoculants with better quality control and longer shelf life.
  6. Tests in pots and fields should be carried out to clearly demonstrate positive effects of bio-fertilizer for different plants, diseases, soils, and climate.
  7. Each country selects most appropriate plants for improve plant growth and/or disease resistance to meet farmers needs in consultation with agricultural ministry.
  8. Results of R/D should be published in professional journals and disseminated to farmers and the publics.
  9. Extension of newly developed bio-fertilizer to end users should be achieved by the joint effort of research institutes and relevant organizations closely linked with farmers and their communities.
  10. Government nuclear institutes which have radiation facilities should support agricultural group for irradiation of carriers. FNCA coordinator should facilitate collaboration between nuclear institute and agricultural research group in each country.
  11. In order to work efficiently through collaboration, it is desirable to select crops, soil environment, plants disease resistance and/or growth increase commonly targeted by selected countries. These countries share works and information to achieve common goal efficiently.
  12. This workshop provides opportunity for you to select a few targeted microorganisms, bio-fertilizers and crops, and to discuss how to collaborate effectively as a group.

Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia