SUMMARY REPORT OF THE FNCA 2004 WORKSHOP
ON THE UTILIZATION OF RESEARCH REACTORS
January 13 - 21, 2005
This document presents a summary on the implementation of the FNCA 2004 Workshop on the Utilization of Research Reactors held in Bangkok, Thailand from January 13 to 21, 2005. The workshop discussed three fields of activities, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Research Reactor Technology (RR) and Tc-99m generator Technology (TCG). It was attended by scientists and technical specialists from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Thailand. A summary of the discussions, progress reports and future programs of each group are presented below.
1. Neutron Activation Analysis
This report consists of two parts; a summary of sub-workshop and a summary of workshop in which an evaluation of the 2002-2004 activity is included.
1.1 A summary of sub-workshop.
A sub-workshop on IAEA-ko was taken place from January 13 to January 15 at the OAP, Thailand. This sub-workshop was planned to introduce IAEA-ko software to our group countries. An expert on IAEA-ko software (Dr. Menno Blaauw, Technical University of Delft, Netherlands) was sent to us from IAEA on this occasion. A total of twelve participants from 7 countries met at the sub-workshop. During the course, some corrections and suggestions on the present version have been recommended by the group. This was the first time for ko-IAEA to be released to NAA users. Both participants and an expert shared worthwhile time.
During the workshop following the technical course on IAEA-ko, NAA group first summarized the sub-workshop in the following; (i) the FNCA sub-workshop on ko-IAEA software has been successfully implemented and (ii) participants need time to get accustomed with the software to fully experience the utilization of the software. They further confirmed the present status for the application of ko-standardization method and the intention for the use of ko-software for the future project, which are summarized in the following table.
||Up to 2004
||ko-CIAE, ko-IAEA for comparison
||Comparison of DSM, ko-CIAE and ko-IAEA
||Comparison of DSM and ko-IAEA
||(Comparison of DSM, ko-CIAE and ko-IAEA)
||Comparison of ko-Dalat and ko-IAEA
||ko-IAEA in collaborating research institute
||ko-IAEA in comparison with other software
||ko-Dalat, ko-IAEA for comparison
Now that all countries are ready to apply ko-IAEA to NAA for routine analyses of environmental samples and will be able to use more than one software, it was agreed at the workshop that we would assess the ko-IAEA software by comparing data between ko-IAEA and other ko-software and further that we would have a session of discussion for this subject at the next workshop. Such an assessment can contribute to upgrade the ko-IAEA.
1.2 A summary of workshop
The workshop was taken place from January 17 to January 21, 2005 at Meeting Room 103, Building No. 4, OAP. The NAA workshop was divided into five sections; (1) reports on air particulate samples, (2) summary of the current project, (3) discussion on action items, (4) discussion on marine samples and (5) evaluation of the current project. Each section is briefly summarized as follow
(1) Reports on air particulate samples
Reports were presented by participants from individual countries. Titles and presenters (in parentheses) of reports are shown in the following;
||Progress report for 2004 workshop of FNCA (Ni Bangfa, China)
|| Analysis of Airborne particulate matter collected in urban and rural area by instrumental neutron activation analysis (Sutisna, Indonesia)
||Elemental compositions of atmospheric particulates collected in Japan in first half year of 2004 (Y. Oura, Japan)
||Chemical characterization of urban air particulate matter of Kuaka Lumpur 2--2-2004 (Wee B. S., Malaysia)
||Roadside air particulate monitoring in the PM10 range (F. L. Santos, Philippines)
||Using ko-INAA for determination of trace multi-element in APM and marine samples collected in period of 2002-2004 (Ho M. D., Vietnam)
||INAA of airborne particulate matter collected in Bangkok and Pathumthani 2002-2004 (W. Chueinta, Thailand)
||Roles of environmental monitoring toward the better environment (T. Otoshi, Japan)
(2) Summary of the current project
As this year is the last year of the current project, we have discussed how to summarize all data for SPM obtained in 2002-2004 and came to conclude to show our activities in two different ways as described below.
|(i)Compilation of all SPM data for putting on a web site.
All data for SPM are to be sent by March 31, 2005 to Wee B. S., who is then responsible for compiling these data. In addition to the data, some accompanying information needs to be sent at the same time. The format which was once prepared by W. Chueinta is to be used as a common format. Data with such information will be put on a web site. The web site of FNCA must be the most appropriate. Once the FNCA office of Japan agrees, Wee B. S. will send all compiled data to T. Mori of JAIF, who is responsible to put them on the web site.
|(ii) Publication of a booklet
Comprehensive report on 2002-2004 data is prepared by each country. This report includes interpretation and discussion as well as all data (monthly data for three years for two sites). The accompanying information used for the above-mentioned compilation has to be also included in this report. A report is to be submitted by each country by no later than April 30, 2005 (hopefully in March) to T. Mori of JAIF, who is responsible to compile and edit all reports for their publication as a booklet. It is strongly requested that JAIF supports its printing and distributing. Booklets are desired to be widely sent to places such as institutions of NAA groups, government offices responsible for environmental protection policy and public organizations for monitoring environment.
(3) Discussion on action items
There are two groups of action item; action items proposed in 2002-2003 and action items proposed in 2004. The latter items were discussed in relation with sections (4) and (5) and will be individually mentioned in corresponding parts described later. Here, action items proposed in 2002-2003 were discussed separately and discussions are summarized as follows. Names in parentheses are persons in charge.
||Collaborative paper on 2002 data (M. Ebihara)
Final manuscript will be completed in a month and will be submitted to an appropriate journal by February 28, 2005.
||QA/QC on INAA for small samples (W. Chueinta)
Data should be submitted to W. Chueinta by May 31, 2005. The draft for submission will be prepared by her by the 2005 FNCA workshop of NAA group.
||QA/QC of INAA for rock samples (A. K. H. Wood)
Because this action item is almost overlapped with the above item, this item was deleted.
||Comparison of SPM data between INAA and XRF (F. L. Santos and Y. Oura)
Assessment will be finished by March 31, 2005. Drafting a manuscript for submission will end by June 30, 2005.
||Comparison of NAA data from different ko-software (Y.-S. Chung, Ho M. D.)
Ho M. D. is responsible for contacting with Y.-S. Chung and ask of the completion of this action item.
(4) discussion on marine samples
Discussion on marine samples was made for two subjects; (i) evaluation of data for three standard reference samples and (ii) proposals for the next project.
|(i)Evaluation of data for three standard reference materials of marine-related samples
Responding to the first action item proposed in 2004, analytical data for three SRM (sediment, sargasso, oyster) were submitted by all countries. These data were compiled in spreadsheets for individual samples and critically evaluated for each of them. Individual countries were asked to check their own data if there seem to be some inconsistencies in comparison with reference values. Data will be further compiled by Ho M. D. Each country is required to report final data sets for three samples to him by June 30, 2005. After compiling and editing all data, Ho M.D. may positively consider a possibility for reporting to an appropriate journal like J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem.
|(ii)Proposals for the next project (the second action item proposed in 2004)
Each country proposed detailed scheme of sampling and analyzing marine-related samples like marine biota and marine sediment, which is summarized in the following table;
||Sort of samples
|# of samples**
||fish, mussel, clam
(or sea weeds)
||mussel, sea weeds, fish
||mussel, oyster, clam, crab
||at least once
||mussel, sea weeds
||mussel, oyster, clam
||mussel, clam, algae
(or sea weeds),
**per each species and site.
The following conditions are mostly common in all countries:
Mussel is analyzed by all countries as a common sample. Two sample types including mussel are to be analyzed as minimum requirement. Marine biota rather than marine sediment is targeted, considering that biota samples seem to be sensitive to the environment. The project will start from coming May if it is authorized at the next coordinators ’ meeting in March, 2005.
||Sampling site: two sites
||Way of sampling: All countries collect samples from fisherman and/or local market. In addition, Vietnam obtain sediment samples in collaboration with ocean institute.
||Sample preparation: freeze-dry.
||Analytical technique: ko-INAA (except for Philippine, where XRF is used and comparison of data between XRF and NAA is to be done).
(5) Evaluation of the current project
Based on evaluation sheets submitted from all participating countries, a draft of the project evaluation report had been prepared by a project leader and its copy was distributed during the workshop. After intense discussion, the draft was revised and the final version of the evaluation report (see separate sheets) was prepared.
In relation with this subject, we have the third action item proposed in 2004; action reports for appealing of our NAA data on environmental samples to the authorities for environmental protection.
Followings are summaries of presentations from individual countries.
|| (China) NAA data for SPM are routinely sent to the data monitoring center in Beijing and used for assessing the pollution level in the city. NAA is well acknowledged to be important tool for such a purpose. Data of marine samples also are used for the same purpose.
|| (Indonesia) There is a good collaboration between BATAN for analyzing of SPM and other institute for collecting of SPM. NAA data of SPM are reported to environmental authorities. Analysis people often discuss with them on NAA data. NAA data of marine samples are to be reported to environmental authorities.
|| (Japan) There have been well organized monitoring networks for SPM throughout the land. Regrettably, NAA has not been well recognized as an important tool for monitoring the environment, possibly because the number of NAA data reported to the authorities concerned is relatively small compared to those from other analytical methods like XRF and ICP-MS. Collaboration with other governmental institutes of environmental sciences has been initiated for SPM and will be extended for marine samples. Through such a collaboration, NAA must be actively appealed to the environmental authorities.
|| (Malaysia) There is a highly functional structure for institutes including MINT and the authorities concerned with SPM, where NAA data can be discussed. A project for marine sample has been already launched at MINT for monitoring the marine environment. NAA data on both SPM and marine samples have been appealed to the authorities.
||(Philippines) There has been a strong linkage for many years between PNRI and governmental authorities in addressing the environmental issues. On many occasions, the PNRI has provided environmental data such as SPM to the authorities. The data on marine samples will also be submitted to governmental authorities.
|| (Thailand) Regarding SPM, OAP has been having a close connection with governmental authorities of the environmental protection, because NAA data can be obtained only at OAP and NAA is well acknowledged as an effective and reliable tool for analyzing SPM. Although there is no such a connection for marine sample at this stage, a similar connection to that for SPM must be made soon.
||(Vietnam) Nowadays, only NAA data of SPM have got less effective to appeal to the authorities of the environmental protection. Such a situation has been yielding a close collaboration between NRI-Dalat and other institutes for monitoring environment as a regular duty. A similar collaboration can be established for marine samples soon.
2. Research Reactor Technology
The objectives of the Research Reactor Technology Group Workshop are to share information on the current status of research reactors among the participating countries and to determine detailed contents of the new project on “Research Reactor Technology for Effective Utilization”.
(1) Workshop Review
Mr. Toshio Kosugi indicated the circumstances up to the present and proposed that the new project would be “Reactor Physics (Neutronics)”.
(2) Special Lecture by Prof. Seiji Shiroya
“Present Status of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI)”
In December 2004, Kyoto University formally decided to continue the operation of a 5 MW research reactor KUR by converting the fuel loaded in the core from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU), although KURRI will obliged to shut down the KUR for a certain period from the beginning of fiscal year 2006 because of the regulation procedure for the fuel conversion. This decision was made in accordance with the change in policy of the United States. It was very fortunate that the Department of Energy (DOE) decided at the end of November 2004 to extend the acceptance period for 10 years for U.S.-origin spent fuel used in the research reactors in other countries. The local governments already accepted KURRI’s proposal to continue the operation of KUR. The KUR will be operated mainly for the clinical irradiation and the activation analysis for around 10 years in the future.
On the other hand, a new project called the KART&LAB (Kumatori Accelerator driven Reactor Test facility and innovation research LABoratory) project aimed at executing a feasibility study on the accelerator driven subcritical reactor (ADSR) is in progress under the financial support by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. In accordance with this 5-year project from the fiscal year 2002, the construction of innovation research laboratory was completed in March 2004, where a new accelerator system of fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) proton synchrotrons will be installed to make a series of experiments on the ADSR in combination with the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). Now, the regulation procedure for the combination of the KUCA and the FFAG system, and the construction of FFAG complex with the capability of variable energy from 2.5 MeV up to 150 MeV are under way to realize a first experiment in the world on the ADSR at the end of this year 2005. Moreover, a series of experiments on ADSR is steadily in progress at the KUCA by using 14 MeV neutrons generated from the Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator installed in the KUCA. Valuable information on the nuclear characteristics of ADSR has already been obtained through these experiments and the conceptual neutronics design study on ADSR.
2.3 Country Reports
“Utilization of MCNP Code in the Research and Design for China Advanced Research Reactor” by Mr. Shen Feng
MCNP(3B), which is the internationalized neutronics code and based on probability transport equation among neutrons, photons and electrons, is used for nuclear research and design in China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). As an important neutronics code, many calculation tasks could be undertaken by it. Firstly, many necessary data on reactor core could be calculated by MCNP such as power distribution, reactivity, neutron energy spectrum, radiation exposure, and so on. Fuel power of any assembly can be tallied with any geometry division under certain reactor power by MCNP, so power distribution is very easy to be obtained. So is the power of any part and any location in the reactor core. The criticality calculation, which can result in many parameters such as excess criticality, shutdown margin, control rod worth, many reactivity coefficients and so on, is essential function in this code. The neutron energy spectrum can be calculated since the continuous cross-section is applied in code which maybe helpful to analyze the correctness of many results. It also can be calculated for the radiation exposure even though sometimes some special technique and tip are necessary for its intrinsic error in long penetration. Secondly, MCNP is also a useful tool to investigate and optimize the important parameters for many reactor utilizations. CARR is multipurpose research reactor which includes many application plans such as radio-isotope production, neutron scattering experiment, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) and so on. Many experimental channels are located at different direction with different size and difficult to calculate its parameter by the code based on diffusion theory. MCNP have been used in study and design for the Cold Neutron Source (CNS), RI production until now on CARR. Thirdly, MCNP code could provide much verification for other nuclear calculation code that produces group parameters. This code can compensate the disadvantage of diffusion theory and verify the group parameter for fuel assembly and control rod. Until now, MCNP is an indispensable nuclear calculation code and used to achieve many research and design tasks for CARR.
“Aging Management and Experience in Safety Operation of the Indonesian Research Reactors” by Mr. Iman Kuntoro
BATAN operates three research reactors TRIGA-2000 at Bandung, 2 MW, KARTINI at Yogya, 100 kW and RSG-GAS at Serpong, 30 MW. The reactors operate routinely to serve R&D and radioisotope production. By now the all reactors reached ages of 40, 25 and 17 years old. Hence, aging management becomes an important activity to maintain the safe operations. Operating experience and aging management of those reactors were reported.
“Current Status of Operation and Utilization of Research Reactors in JAERI” by Mr. Hisashi Sagawa
There are several research and test reactors including a critical facility in JAERI. Of these research reactors, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR are utilized widely by a large number of researchers. The JMTR is a test reactor to evaluate radiation damage of structural materials in fission or a fusion reactor and behavior of nuclear fuels. The current status of research reactors in JAERI i.e. JRR-3 and JRR-4 were reported. The JRR-3 is operated in continuous runs of 26 days per cycle and 7 cycles per year for mainly neutron activation analysis, neutron scattering experiments, radioisotope production and silicon doping. From the first start-up after modification to the end of December 2004, it totaled about 58,000 hours of operation and the accumulated integrating power was about 46,000 MWd. The JRR-4 is operated in daily runs of 4 days per week and 42 weeks per year for mainly neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production, silicon doping, training and medical irradiation. From the first start-up after modification to the end of November 2004, it totaled about 5,900 hours of operation and the integrating power was about 570 MWd. With regard to utilization of JRR-3 and JRR-4 from April to December 2004, 1,996 capsules, which are used for neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production, silicon doping and so on, were irradiated, 943 experiments for neutron scattering were carried out and 6 medical irradiations were carried out.
“HANARO Operation Experience in the Year 2004” by Dr. Soo-Youl Oh
The experiences of HANARO operation and maintenance in the year 2004 are presented. The operation of HANARO, a 30MW research reactor operated by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), aims at a safe and effective operation to enhance its utilization in various fields of scientific research and industry. Regardless of its importance of the routine operation, the report is devoted rather unusual matters such as irregular maintenance events and incidents. Since the first criticality in 1995, it has been a long-cherished task to reach the designed power level of 30 MW from the temporarily approved 24 MW. By resolving the concern on the fuel integrity, the designed level could be licensed and, eventually, it was achieved last November. On the other hand, after its 9 years operation, the mechanical integrity of the heavy water reflector tank was checked. The measurement of the vertical straightness of the tank inner shell indicated the integrity. Meanwhile, the HANARO fuel production facility was completed at the KAERI site, and it will begin to supply centrifugally atomized fuels, instead of conventional comminuted fuels, to HANARO shortly. There were several incidents in 2004, which have all been cleared, including a leak of heavy water, melting of a sample in an irradiation hole for the neutron activation analysis, and a condensation problem in a horizontal beam tube. The progress of and lessons from each incident are presented. The utilization of HANARO is expanding every year and the trend will also continue in 2005. The operation mode has been changed from an 18-day continuous operation and 10-day shutdown (18-10 mode) to the 23-12 mode since the end of 2004, and a further extension is planned to the 30-12 mode. Thanks to this extended operation term, an increased power level and, most importantly, a reliable operation, the HANARO is gaining more and more credit from the end users.
“Operation and Maintenance of the 1 MW PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor” by Mr. Adnan Bokhari
The Malaysian Research Reactor, Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) has been successfully operated for 22 years for various experiments. Since its commissioning in June 1982 until December 2004, the 1 MW pool-type reactor has accumulated more than 21143 hours of operation, corresponding to cumulative thermal energy release of about 14083 MW-hours. The reactor is currently in operation and normally operates on demand, which is normally up to 6 hours a day. Presently the reactor core is made up of standard TRIGA fuel element consists of 8.5 wt%, 12 wt% and 20 wt% types; 20%-enriched and stainless steel clad. Several measures such as routine preventive maintenance and improving the reactor support systems have been taken toward achieving this long successful operation. Besides normal routine utilization like other TRIGA reactors, new strategies are implemented for effective increase in utilization, especially in the utilization of neutron beams. The upgrading of the radioisotope handling facilities hopefully will increase the request for the radioisotopes production at the reactor.
“Current Status of Operation and Utilization of the Dalat Research Reactor” by Dr. Nguyen Nhi Dien
The current status of the reactor operation and utilization as well as some results on in-core fuel management of the DNRR was presented. The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a 500 kW pool-type reactor using the Soviet WWR-M2 fuel assembly with 36% enrichment of U-235. It was renovated and upgraded from the USA 250 kW TRIGA Mark-II reactor. The first criticality of the renovated reactor was in November 1983 and its regular operation at nominal power of 500 kW has been since March 1984. The DNRR is operated mainly in continuous runs of 100 hrs, once every 4 weeks, for radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, scientific research and training. The remaining time between two continuous runs is devoted to maintenance activities and also to short run for reactor physics and thermal hydraulics experiments. From the first start-up to the end of December 2004, it totaled about 27,500 hrs of operation and the total energy released was about 540 MWd. The first fuel reloading was executed in April 1994 after more than 10 years of operation with 89 fuel assemblies (FA). The 11 new FA were added in the core periphery, at previous beryllium element locations. After reloading the working configuration of reactor core consisted of 100 FA. The second fuel reloading was executed in March 2002. The 4 new FA were added in the core periphery, at previous beryllium element locations. The working configuration of 104 FAs ensured efficient exploitation of the DNRR at nominal power for about 3000 hrs since March 2002. In order to provide excess reactivity for the reactor operation without the need to discharge high burnup FA, in June 2004, the fuel shuffling of the reactor core was done. 16 FA with low burnup from the core periphery were moved toward the core center and 16 FA with high burnup from the core center were moved toward the core periphery. The current reactor configuration using re-shuffled HEU fuel is expected to allow normal operation until around June 2006.
In 1999, the request of returning to Russia HEU fuels from foreign research reactors used Russian fuels was submitted to Russian Government though IAEA. After that, the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program was established and trilateral discussions among the United State, the Russian Federation and the IAEA started. In this aspect, the Dalat reactor core has been considered to insert fresh LEU FAs instead of fresh HEU FAs. It means that the mixed core of HEU and LEU FAs may be used in the coming years. For these purposes, neutronics and thermal hydraulics calculations and safety analyses should be done.
“Current Status of the Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1)” by Mr. Dacharchai Charnbanchee
The first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1 went critical on 27 October 1962 at the maximum power of 1 MW. It was located at Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) in Bangkok. Since then, TRR-1 was continuously operated and eventually shut down in 1975. Plate type, high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U3O8-Al cladding were used as the reactor fuel. Light water was used as moderator and coolant as well. In 1975, because of the problem from fuel supplier and also to supporting the Treaty of Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon or NPT, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. A new core is a hexagonal core shape designed by General Atomics (GA). This reactor is designed for continuous steady-state operation up to 2 MW at any positions in the pool. Moreover, this reactor can be operated in pulsing mode at around 23 MW-sec, the peak power of 2000 MW and a pulsed width at a half of maximum of 10msec. The initial criticality was reached on Nov. 7, 1977. Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to the Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose swimming pool type reactor. The TRR-1/M1 uses uranium enriched at 20% in U-235 (LEU) and ZrH alloy as fuel. Light water is also used as coolant and moderator. At present, the reactor is operating with core No.14. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization namely, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. As aging management, the reactor pool was refurbished during 1990-1991 because residual radiation existing in the pool and piping facilities after reactor shutdown is rather high. Since the TRR-1/M1 began in operations in 1977 until now, OAP tried to make every effort to improve efficiency in both reactor operations and utilizations in accordance with the IAEA safety guideline. However, aging problem of the reactor pool including the obsolete equipment of the I&C still remain the major problem for the TRR-1/M1. Therefore, depending on the above problem of the TRR-1/M1 reactor, Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC) is established.
“Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center Project” by Mr. Mongkol Julanan
The layout of the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center and the current situation of construction are introduced. The conceptual design of the new reactor is also shown. The reactor is a pool type and its thermal power is 10MW. It has 6 neutron beam lines which are utilized for HRPD, NRG, PGNAA, BNCT and so on, and it has several vertical irradiation holes for RI production, silicon doping and pneumatic irradiation facilities.
2.4 Proposal for New Project from Each Country
(1) The proposal from China
The concrete plan for the new project was not indicated, but Chinese delegate indicated the items to be considered in order to implement the new project, namely aims, role of research reactor, and so on.
(2) The proposal from Indonesia
Indonesian delegate proposed “Accuracy in neutronics calculation for a better reactor core management” to improve neutronics calculation technique for core management in each member country. In the proposal, he indicated the concrete activities for each year and also proposed of using the RSG-GAS reactor as a benchmark reactor.
(3) The proposal from Japan
Japanese delegate proposed “Sharing Neutronics Calculation Technology for the Operation Management on Research Reactors” to establish the safe and stable reactor operation, to conduct the effective fuel management and to enhance reactor utilization. In the proposal, he indicated the concrete activities for each year and also proposed of using a Monte Carlo code instead of carrying out experiments using a research reactor.
(4) The proposal from Korea
Korean delegate proposed “Enhancement of Accuracy of Reactor Physics Calculation and Sharing physics calculation technology.” In the proposal, he indicated the concrete activities for each year. He also proposed to survey the status not only of core calculation methods but also of measuring techniques of reactor physics parameters.
(5) The proposal from Malaysia
The concrete plan for the new project was not indicated, but Malaysian delegate supported the use of common code for core management.
(6) The proposal from Vietnam
Vietnamese delegate proposed “Reactor core management including core analyses and measuring techniques” to optimize the fuel utilization and to enhance effective utilization of the reactor facilities. The concrete plan for each year was not indicated, but he indicated the items to be considered in order to implement the new project.
(7) The proposal from Thailand
Thai delegate proposed the core management with SRAC code system and he presented the status of neutronics calculation.
2.5 Discussion and Summary
Considering the importance of using research reactors for radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography, Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD), clinical irradiation (BNCT), neutron scattering experiments, and so on, the necessity of sharing common neutronics calculation codes, which enable to analyze neutronics characteristics in detail, was discussed and recognized. Utilization of the common calculation codes would contribute to improve and equalize the level of neutronics calculation among participating countries through discussions based on the common tools towards the enhancement of safe operation and effective utilization of research reactors in the participating countries.
Then the concrete contents were discussed and determined as follows:
(1) Theme Title
“Sharing Neutronics Calculation Techniques for Core Management and Utilization of Research Reactors”
The objective is to share neutronics calculation techniques among the participating countries for core management on research reactors in order to assure safe and stable operation for effective utilization.
(3) Project Duration
The project duration is three years from Japanese FY2005 to FY2007.
(4) Project Activities
The detailed activities for each year are shown in the Attachment.
(5) Leading Country and Leading Organization
The leading country and the leading organization are Japan and JAERI, respectively.
(6) Common neutronics codes
SRAC system and MVP code.
Project Activities for FY2005
||1st Workshop (January/2006)
|| Distribute information on the minimum requirements for computer performance (standard procedure)
Distribute manuals and source programs or executable modules of common code system (SRAC) & Monte Carlo code (MVP)
| Install common code system & Monte Carlo code
Demonstrate common code system
Provide all information concerning the common code system
Introduce candidates for imaginary cores
|| Prepare information on current status of domestic core management (comparison between measured and calculated values)
Install common code system & Monte
Carlo code and execute sample problems
| Present the current status on domestic neutronics calculation
Present the installation status of the common code system & Monte Carlo code
Project Activities for FY2006
||2nd Workshop (January/2007)
|| Fix imaginary core (2 type cores)
| Instruction of core burn-up calculation on imaginary core
Interim evaluation of activity
|| Core calculation on imaginary core (2 type cores) by common code system & Monte Carlo code
|| Present the results of calculations by common code system & Monte Carlo code
Learn core burn-up calculation
Project Activities for FY2007
|| 3rd Workshop (January/2008)
|| Prepare 3rd Workshop
|| Present results of calculations
Evaluation of activity
Discussion and proposal for the next project
|| Domestic core calculation by common code system
Table 1. Summarization of the experimental results conducted by participating countries
3. Tc-99m Generator Technology
In the Tc-99m generator group of the 2004 Workshop, one delegate from each of China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines and two delegates from Japan were hosted by Thailand. And nine delegates of Thailand participated. Regrettably the contribution by Viet Nam was not available due to illness of the delegate. The participated delegates promoted the technology of Tc-99m generator using poly-zirconium compound (PZC) as an adsorbent for neutron activated (n, γ) Mo-99.
3.1 Evaluation of the collaborative experiments conducted by each country
Following the agreement of the workshop held in Indonesia in January 2004, PZC materials have been distributed to participating countries in June and November 2004 from Japan. The amount of PZC material was 15 grams for each laboratory each time. For these experiments, use of secondary column of alumina and oxidizing agent NaOCl in saline were compulsory to follow the standard protocol issued by FNCA for the production process.
Highlight of the present workshop is the quality test of Tc-99m eluted from the PZC-based generator by labeling. Prior to the workshop, the labeling efficiency for Technetium radiopharmaceutical kit (MDP, for bone diagnosis) was requested to each laboratory as a minimal implementation. The labeling results are summarized in the Table 1 together with the results of chemical purity measurement, both of which are fairly good.
||>98% (for MDP)
||>85~99% (for MDP, Pyrophosphate, MIBI, HMPAO,EC, HYNIC-UBI)
||Bio-distribution test using animals has been done and Clinical trial in the hospital is currently ongoing.
||~100% (for MDP)
||96~100% (for MDP, MAG3, DTPA)
||Bio-distribution tests using mice were done.
The comments from each country for the experimental results are as follows.
The experiments showed that the PZC distributed by Japan prepared with different technical process of Mo adsorption has different adsorption efficiency. The fine PZC powder adsorbing Mo should be completely removed to avoid the high Mo breakthrough in the process of elution. The 0.05% NaOCl contained in eluate evidently affects the labeling yield of MDP kits. The 99Mo-PZC generator system should be further improved, especially the quality of PZC.
Radiochemical purities of 99mTcO4- and several kinds of radiopharmaceutical kits labeled with 99mTc milked from fission-type generator and PZC-based generator were compared to confirm nothing problematic difference and found each purity as high as more than 98%.
Further clinical trials of new 99Mo/99mTc generators at several hospitals in Jakarta and Bandung are planned. Each hospital will receive 6 times of generator shipments for 6 volunteers to be tested. Each generator contains > 300 mCi 99Mo in 1 gram of PZC.
In order to solve the remained quality problems of current PZC material related to strength of granule, pre-heating and sintering conditions were re-examined and modified. In this study a promising practical PZC with superior performance was obtained and optimal conditions for its large scale production were determined.
The performance of the PZC samples distributed in 2004 seems to be improved with a lesser breakthrough of the 99Mo, higher material stability, better elution efficiency, etc. compared to the other PZC samples provided previously.
The labeling efficiency was found to be about 100 % without free 99mTcO4-. This quality control study proved the property of 99mTcO4- from PZC was equivalent to the 99mTcO4- eluted from commercial fission type 99mTc generator.
Because of renovation of facilities in MINT, all PZC samples distributed by Japan are kept until new facility becomes available. The facility is expected to have a capacity to produce fifty Tc-99m generators per batch.
The results obtained for the present batches of PZC, although limited in number of trials and in the level of molybdenum activity loaded in the column, showed that the PZC batches are good molybdenum adsorbent column material for 99mTc generators.
Although some batches of PZC showed slightly low Mo adsorption and Tc-99m yield, all Na99mTcO4 obtained form PZC column revealed satisfactory results. It is strongly believed that Na99mTcO4 from PZC-based generator is suitable for medical use according to its chemical and biological characteristics which are comparable to those of Na99mTcO4 from (n, f)99Mo/99mTc generator.
It could be concluded that PZC exhibited high performance for (n,g)99Mo/99mTc generator and is promising as an alternative for fission-based generator which will benefit the countries operating small research reactors.
3.2 Implementation of the other work plan during the FY2004
3.2.1 Trouble shooting and improvement of the loading system
BATAN, where the machine is installed, investigated (1) the cause of incomplete reaction of PZC with 99Mo solution and (2) transfer process problems. The results of investigation and improvement were reported in the Coordinators Meeting held in March 2004 in Tokyo. After that the machine is running without any problems.
3.2.2 Establishment of a high quality PZC synthesis procedure
Kaken Co. established the strict quality control procedure for synthesizing PZC as an exclusive manufacturer of the key material of PZC.
3.2.3. Clinical trial in hospitals
The clinical trials of PZC based 99mTc labeled kits under cooperation with the Hasan Sadikin Hospital in Bandung already started. The trials were conducted on October 21, 2004 for testing with eluted pertechnetate itself for whole body imaging, December 17, 2004 for Myocardial perfusion diagnosis with MIBI and January 5, 2005 for Thyroid gland diagnosis with MIBI.
3.3 Work plan for FY2005
3.3.1 Distribution of PZC material
For the joint experiment to establish the QA/QC structure, Japan continues to distribute increased amount of PZC material for each participating laboratory.
3.3.2 Clinical trial in hospital (continued from FY2004)
Additional two hospitals in Jakarta (Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital with 99mTc-HMPAO and
Army Hospital with 99mTc -EC) are participating and 15 volunteers are ready for testing.
3.3.3 Commercial production and supply of PZC-based Tc-99m generator
The intensive market research, detailed cost study and QC protocols of routine production of
PZC-based Tc-99m generator, as well as survey of specifications of radiopharmaceuticals of each country are to be investigated to access the present demand of Tc-99m in the region.
3.3.4 Improvement of computerized loading machine
In order to realize more efficient performance for molybdate-PZC reaction, the mechanism of Mo solution supply and the means of stirring are to be modified.
3.3.5 Publication of Comprehensive Report on PZC-based Tc-99m Generators
The authors of each chapter were nominated and the first draft will be completed by the end of March 2005.
The work plans for FY2005 is summarized in Table 2.
Table 2. Work plan for FY2005
|1) Distribution of PZC material
2) Clinical trials in hospital
3) Commercial production and supply of PZC-based Tc-99m generator
4) Improvement of computerized loading machine
5) Publication of comprehensive report on PZC-based Tc-99m generators
3.4 Recommendations and suggestions
BATAN can provide the neutron irradiated natural Mo of high radioactivity with free of charge except the cost of container and transportation.
||As the invited talks, Dr. Hideaki Yokomizo, Deputy Director General, Tokai Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Institute made the presentation on “Neutron Sources in Japan” and
Dr. Tawatchai Chaiwatanarat, Division of Nuclear Medicine of the Chulalongkorn University gave the presentation titled “Medical Application of Radioisotope in Thailand.”
||Press conference was held after the opening ceremony. Reporters from two media stations (TV and Radio) attended and the report were broadcasted within the same day.
||Technical visit to the OAP facilities of Research Reactor, Radioisotope Production, Food Irradiation and Mutation Breeding were organized during the workshop.
4. Round Table Discussion
4.1 Workshop Summary
Under the chair of Mr. Sakda Charoen, PL of Thailand, and Dr. Hideaki Yokomizo, Chairman of URR field in Japan, summaries of the workshop on Neutron Activation Analysis, Research Reactor Technology and Tc-99m Generator Technology were reported by Prof. Mitsuru Ebihara, Mr. Siripone Chueinta and Dr. Tsuguo Genka respectively. All participants of the workshop agreed on the summary reports.
4.2 Additional remark at the Round Table Discussion
It was agreed to propose to the 6th FNCA Coordinators Meeting that Malaysia be the hosting country for the 2005 workshop by agreement of all participants at the FNCA 2004 Workshop on the Utilization of Research Reactors held in Thailand.