Mutation Breeding workshop


- Project Review
- Introduction of the Project Leaders
- Mutation Breeding Database
- Mutation Breeding Publication Database
- Mutation Breeding Manual
- Sorghum & Soybean
- Insect Resistance in Orchid
- Disease Resistance in Banana
- Composition or Quality in Rice
- Rice for Sustainable Agriculture
- Papers for Project Outcome

  Banana Meeting 2008
  Orchid Meeting 2007
  Banana Meeting 2006
  Orchid Meeting 2005



Dr. Lam Quang Du, Prof. Tran Duy Quy et al,
Institute of Agricultural Genetics, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Vietnam belongs to sub-tropical and tropical region, where species of orchids are very diverse ( app. 125 genera and 800 species compared to 750 genera and 25000 species in the world). Recently, orchids are being exploited and cultivated in natural forest, households, and private companies. Mostly, there has few effect of breeding towarding the creation of new varieties possess nice colour or big flower, resistant to pests and diseases and so on. Many kinds of pests and diseases for orchid are available in natural condition. Moreover, increasingly, in Vietnam, different orchids are been being imported from some other countries as: China, Taiwan, Korea, Thailand, America and so on. That’s why many new pests and diseases in orchid present also in Vietnam.
1. Some pests and diseases for orchid in Vietnam
Viruses infection are quite common for orchid in Vietnam. Once infected, the whole of a plant becomes infected. It is weakened but does not die, and may be relatively symptom-free. They involve various degree of leaf discoloration, often with yellow or black mottling or pitting, or streaked patterns. Viruses can cause color and shape abnormalities in in flowers. Some of viruses for orchid in Vietnam may be Cymbidium Mosaic virus (CyMV), Tobacco Mosaic virus (Orchids type, and Odontoglossum Ring Spot virus (ORSV).
Fungal and Bacterial diseases
Mostly, fungal and bacterial diseases cause some forms of rot, or discoloration and spotting of flowers or leaves. The common symptoms that are attributable to fungal and bacterial attack are rotting, where the plant tissues become discolored, then streaks or spots of discoloration on leaves or flowers. In Vietnam condition, we usually remove the affected parts of orchids by cutting back to clear tissue; then spray or paint cut surfaces with bactericide and fungicide, and dispose completely of infected materials.
Fungicides as: Physan and Streptomycin Sulphate (agricultural antibiotic), 1% Copper Sulphate solution, Captan, Thiram, Zineb, Etridiazole, Metalaxyl or Natriphene can be used to control infections. In many cases, infected plants were removed immediately, as infection spreads rapidly in collection.
In Vietnam, a wide range of pests, most of which are insects, can damage orchids. Apart from snails, cockroaches or beetle larvae that actually feed on the plant or their flowers. Other pests such as: aphids, mites, thrips that may infect the plant that it becomes seriously debilitated or even killed. The commonest problems are mites, thrips, and scale insects. Damage activities and countermeasures of them as following:
Scale insects: they cause infections of tiny brown scales covering plant leaves and stems. Dimethoate or Triazophos can be used for effective control.
Mites: red spider mites and false spider mites attack the leaves and stems, sucking the sap. They particularly accumulate on the surface of leaves. Amitaz, Diazinon, Dimethoate and Propagite can be used effectively for mite control.
Mealy Bugs: the bodies of mealy bugs form a white powdery mass around stems. Malathion can be used for effective protection.
Beetles: beetle larvas eat flowers or root tips. Pesticides as: Trichlorfon, Dimethoate or Diazinon can be used for effective control.
Cockroaches: they eat the green tips of roots. Diazinon or Malathion can be used for effective control.
Thrips: they cause failure of the flower buds or distortion of flower or white streaks. Dimethoate, Diazinon and Trizophos can be used for control.
2. Some fungicides, bactericide, and pesticides using for orchid in some places of Vietnam:
Recently, most of pesticides, which are being used in Vietnam to be imported from oversea as China, Japan, the United State of American, etc. Some of them are tested and guided in detailed for use as following:
Names Concentration
Names Concentration
 Dimethoate  1-2 ml/l
 Fenpropathrin  2-3 ml/l
 Endosufan  1,5 3 ml/l
 Topsin-M  1 kg/ 500 l water/ha
 Zincopper  2-3 kg/ 500 l water/ha
 Daconil 500SC  2.3-3 kg/ 500 l water/ha
 Kocide  2-4 kg/ 500 l water/ha
 Sumi-eight 12.5wp  0.4-0.8 kg/ 500 l water/ha
 Zeneb  1-1.5 kg/ 500 l water/ha
 Dursban 50W  -
 Diazinon 50W  -
3. Research proposal
- It’s necessary to have molecular pathology techniques to test virus infection at very early stage. It is Enzyme Linked Immune-Absorbent Assay (ELISA) or others. - In many cases, the use of fungicides, bactericide, and pesticides had not been controlled. It should be controlled carefully by authorities.
- Pests and diseases of the imported orchids from oversea have to be controlled carefully.
- Fungticides possess different compositions and effectiveness varies with different fungy. So, different fungticides should be used at alternate application.
- Furthermore, selection of new orchids with good resistant to pests and diseases should be performed.

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