オーストラリア バングラデシュ 中国 インドネシア 日本
カザフスタン 韓国 マレーシア モンゴル フィリピン タイ ベトナム
Country Report of Australia
Ms. Nadia Levin
General Manager, Government, International and External Relations
Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)
Honourable Ministers, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great pleasure for me to represent Senator Chris Evans, Australian Minister for Tertiary Education, Skills, Science and Research at this meeting. Senator Evans sends his good wishes to the Meeting and regrets that he was not able to travel to Indonesia at this time. This Meeting provides an excellent opportunity to discuss FNCA activities and to review FNCA achievements and the continuing role of FNCA in the region. I would like to thank the Indonesian Ministry for Research and Technology and the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), with the support of the Cabinet Office of the Government of Japan, and the Japan Atomic Energy Commission, for the excellent meeting arrangements.
Nuclear Research and Development
The Federal Government has recognised the importance of nuclear science and technology in Australia through funding for new neutron research instruments at the OPAL reactor facility in Sydney and the establishment of a Centre for Accelerator Science. The Neutron Beam Instrument expansion project is well underway and includes the design of new laboratories and workshops for 150 people, which will accommodate increasing numbers of visiting international scientists.
The Centre for Accelerator Science is being developed with the addition of two new accelerators; one a low-energy multi-isotope accelerator mass spectrometer and the other a new medium-energy tandem accelerator. The two new accelerators will join ANSTO's existing two accelerators, the Australian National Tandem Accelerator for Applied Research (ANTARES) and the Small Tandem Accelerator for Applied Research (STAR), both of which are used in ion beam analysis and accelerator mass spectrometry. Combined, the four accelerators will place ANSTO at the forefront of this cutting edge technology and will attract international scientists from nearly every scientific field.
The Australian Synchrotron, together with the OPAL research reactor, represent Australia's largest-ever investment in scientific infrastructure. The synchrotron, through its production of extremely very energetic x-rays and infrared light, is being used to study a diverse range of materials and processes in great detail. The facility is being shared with international collaborators - since the Australian Synchrotron opened in July 2007, it has been visited by more than 3000 researchers from 186 organisations in 27 countries. ANSTO will soon take over the operation of the Australian Synchrotron, driving synergies with the neutron beam science carried out at the OPAL reactor.
The Australian government recently announced plans to construct a low enriched uranium export scale nuclear medicine manufacturing plant and collocated Synroc waste treatment plant (which can treat intermediate level waste and other challenging and intractable wastes) at ANSTO. The project has important implications for the future security of the supply of Mo-99 globally and significant export potential through the demonstration of Australian Synroc technology to international counterparts. These world-class facilities place Australia at the forefront of nuclear science and technology innovation. Current and future research taking place at ANSTO is in the areas of life sciences and food, environment and climate change, novel materials, materials engineering, and technologies for national security.
Nuclear Regulatory System
During 2012, the Australian Government commissioned a review of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, the legislation which underpins the regulation of the safety of nuclear activities in Australia. That review is still under way. ARPANSA has also drafted a Regulatory Guide on Licensing of Radioactive Waste Storage and Near-Surface Disposal Facilities. The Draft Regulatory Guide contains considerations for potential applicants for a licence to site, construct, operate and decommission radioactive waste storage and near-surface disposal facilities. When finalised, the Guide will supersede ARPANSA's 2006 regulatory guide for radioactive waste management, which was due for revision in light of both local and international experience. The draft Guide was prepared by ARPANSA in consultation with international peers, and has been subject to a period of public comment.
National Energy Policy in Australia
The Australian Government has recently released an Energy White Paper which provides a policy framework to address challenges in the nation's energy sector. Priorities outlined to enhance Australia's energy potential include energy market reform, developing Australia's critical energy resources particularly Australia's gas resource and accelerating clean energy outcomes.
In terms of future energy mix, fossil fuels will continue to underpin Australia's energy security. However, the energy base will become more diverse with a shift towards renewable and alternative technologies such as carbon capture and storage. The Australian Government maintains the position that it does not foresee the introduction of nuclear power in Australia, unless there is a failure to commercialise new low-emissions baseload energy technologies within the timeframe necessary to meet long-term global and national emissions reduction objectives. However, the government accepts that nuclear power is an important part of the energy mix in some countries, particularly those which lack indigenous energy resources and where energy demand is growing strongly.
Australia is well-positioned internationally to take advantage of the global resurgence in nuclear science and technology, with particular emphasis on the Asia-Pacific region. Australia's international standing is particularly prominent in the areas of non-proliferation, nuclear safety, security, and specialised applications of key technologies. Australia not only develops science and technology in these areas but actively engages in technical cooperation activities in the region whereby developing countries, in particular, benefit from the expertise, facilities and educational opportunities available.
In conjunction with the IAEA, Australia hosts 20-30 IAEA Fellows and Scientific Visitors each year across most areas of nuclear applications. A number of these are hosted at ANSTO, where they benefit from our facilities and breadth of expertise, particularly in the areas of neutron science, environmental applications, waste management and radiation safety.
Australia, largely through Federal and State Government agencies and academic institutions, also actively participates on IAEA expert committees and other forums, in Coordinated Research Projects, and in expert missions. Many of these activities are carried out in support of technical cooperation with developing Member States in the region.
An important aspect of Australia's regional engagement in technical cooperation is through the RCA (Regional Cooperative Agreement). Australia participates in 15 of the 20 current RCA projects across all thematic sectors (Environment; Industry; Agriculture; Health), and leads four of those projects. This engagement is important to the success of the projects, as they draw on the expertise available in Australia.
Australia actively develops and fosters close bilateral relationships in the region, generally with the aim of aiding developing nations in the region aspire to and reach more reliable, safe and secure uses of their nuclear applications. Some of these bilateral collaborations are made possible through the Agency for International Development (AusAID), the Australian Government's agency responsible for managing Australia's overseas aid program.
With the global supply of the most widely used medical isotope, Mo-99, under severe pressure due to the ageing of the world's major reactors used in its production, Australia is well-placed to meet that shortfall with the construction of the newly announced nuclear medicine manufacturing plant at ANSTO. The plant will have the capacity to meet a significant portion of the world's Mo-99 needs, which will go a long way to alleviate uncertainty about future supply.
Through ANSTO, Australia supports training and educational initiatives in nuclear science and technology. ANSTO regularly hosts visiting scientists from developing countries in the region who can take advantage of our facilities and educational programs.
Participation in FNCA activities
During the past year, Australia has continued to support FNCA's activities. We continue to provide leadership and sponsorship of the Safety Management Systems Project. We have also participated actively in the projects on Radiation Safety and Radioactive Waste Management; Neutron Activation Analysis; the Research Reactor Network; Human Resources Development; and Security and Safeguards.
Safety Management Systems Project
Australia is strongly committed to the Safety Management Systems (SMS) Project, which commenced at the beginning of 2010 with the inaugural workshop in Sydney, hosted by ANSTO. The SMS Project uses a self-assessment and peer review process intended to help improve the safety management arrangements in facilities, building on the framework generated by the former Nuclear Safety Culture Project.
Following on from the workshops and peer reviews hosted by Indonesia in October 2010 and by Malaysia in November 2011, the third workshop and peer review was held at the HANARO reactor in Daejeon, Korea, from 31 October to 2 November 2012. A self-assessment was first completed by the operator of the facility. The peer review teams then visited to review and discuss the self-assessment reports and safety management system. The workshop and peer review in Korea also provided the opportunity for the Malaysian representative to give feedback on implementation of improvements to the safety management system at the Bangi facility as a result of the November 2011 peer review.
Radiation Safety and Radioactive Waste Management Project
Australia participated in the Radiation Safety and Radioactive Waste Management Workshop held in The Philippines in July. This was the fifth combined Radiation Safety and Radioactive Waste Management workshop under this Project. Australia delivered a presentation on radiation safety control and emergency response in reducing occupational exposure in waste management.
Australia has always been regarded in this region as one of the leaders in demonstrating world's best practice in the area of waste management and radiation safety. Australia has provided training to neighbouring countries on topics such as waste management, emergency preparedness and source detection and recovery. Australia sees its role in promoting awareness of appropriate waste management practices as an important contribution to the project.
Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Project
Australia continues to lead the Geochemical Mapping sub-project and hosted the FNCA workshop on NAA on 14-17 November 2011 at ANSTO in Sydney. All participating countries at the workshop demonstrated different approaches to the utilisation of NAA in geochemical studies. The first trial proficiency test was held in 2010 and involved 8 laboratories from 7 countries using NAA to determine the elemental composition of three unidentified stream sediments provided by Japan. Most laboratories performed satisfactorily but is was also apparent that some lab could improve their performance. This year there has been even more enthusiasm in participating in the second round of proficiency testing, with 14 laboratories from 9 countries registering to participate, including newly-joined Kazakhstan and Mongolia. The National Measurement Institute (NMI) of Australia has offered to participate as an advisor, providing samples in helping to design the protocol. NMI will carry out the statistical analysis and interpretation of the data using their proficiency test software package.
The regional activities in performing these proficiency tests through the FNCA has caught the attention of the IAEA which has itself coordinated a number of tests in north Africa and South America. It is anticipated that the results of all the regional NAA proficiency tests will be presented and discussed at a meeting at the IAEA next year.
There has been a tendency for some countries to send different people to each workshop which causes disruption of continuity and engagement, especially if the person attending does not have the authority to commit to programs of work. Participating member countries need to address this aspect of the project to ensure project outcomes are maximised.
Human Resources Development (HRD) Project
Although Australia maintains a high profile and active research programs in non-power applications of nuclear science and technology, it currently has no domestic educational institutions offering a specific qualification in nuclear engineering, although nuclear engineering is a component of broader nuclear science Masters degrees. International cooperation provides one way of meeting Australia's relatively limited needs for graduates in this discipline. In developing its own human resources, Australia considers the full spectrum of training, education and development opportunities available, including those available through the FNCA HRD program. For example, graduates nearing completion of their training as part of ANSTO's graduate development program may benefit from gaining experience in regional nuclear facilities. In addition, ANSTO continues to make inputs into the ANTEP database concerning opportunities for training on radiation safety, neutron scattering and the availability of distance learning in medical physics.
Australia participated at the workshop on Human Resources Development on 12-14 September, 2012, in Shenzhen, China and supports the outcomes of the workshop which agreed on more collaboration in nuclear applications; an introduction on heavy-ion beam (Hadron) applications; more distance learning courses, especially in English; and ways of addressing the skills gap due to retirement of experienced staff.
Research Reactor Network (RRN) Project
The world currently struggles with the challenge of establishing a stable, ongoing supply of essential medical radioisotopes such as Mo-99. In meeting this challenge, Australia will play an important role through ANSTO's OPAL research reactor and the recently announced Mo-99 plant, which will be a significant contributor to the future world supply. The Mo-99 supply chain involves a complex processing and distribution process which relies on global cooperation and partnerships between a number of Government and private stakeholders. The FNCA RRN is potentially important in that cooperation, particularly for the region, and Australia participated at the first two RRN project meetings the first workshop in Indonesia in November 2011, and the subsequent Ad-Hoc meeting in March 2012 in China which discussed establishing an up-stream network of medical isotope supply in the region.
However, an obstacle for the project is its lack of relevance to most FNCA member countries. Currently, only a few member countries are significant users of Mo-99, and there is a large differential to access between producers compared to the other members. Furthermore, Mo-99 production is largely a commercial operation, and sharing of detailed production and pricing information will therefore be restricted to some extent.
Security and Safeguards Project
Australia participated at the inaugural project workshop in Japan in March 2012. The workshop reinforced the enthusiasm for FNCA countries to cooperate on safeguards and security. It provided an opportunity for some developing member countries to describe their security and safeguards systems, and the challenges they face, and the more advanced countries providing updates on their respective outreach programs and training centres. The workshop agreed that there should be closer cooperation with APSN, and that future safeguards-related workshops should be co-badged as FNCA and APSN.
Australia values its role as a member of the FNCA and affirms its support to the Forum's program, in particular encouraging exchanges in the various thematic fields discussed above. Australia's strength lies in its robust research program in nuclear science and technology, which that is being driven significantly by our OPAL research reactor, with its world class neutron beam facilities, and through the Centre for Accelerator Science. While our research program makes heavy demands on our limited human resources, we have been pleased to continue active participation in the FNCA program as part of our national, regional and international commitment.
Country Report of Bangladesh
Architect Yeafesh Osman
Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST)
Ladies and Gentlemen
Good Morning/Good Afternoon
On behalf of the delegation of Bangladesh I would like to thank the Cabinet office of Indonesia, Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) and National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) for the excellent arrangements of this important event.
I also convey our best compliments to the distinguished Ministers, senior officials and delegates from FNCA member countries for their presence in this august gathering.
Ladies and gentlemen,
The present Government of Bangladesh under the dynamic leadership of our Hon'ble Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has declared "Vision 2021-Digital Bangladesh" with a view to building a modern, knowledge-based and technology driven middle income country by 2021. The Vision includes programmes to eradicate poverty and hunger, to ensure food and energy security, to achieve environmental sustainability, to fight all the killer diseases and to create national capability to face the adverse effects of Climate Change. We consider nuclear technology as one of tools to achieve the Vision.
Ladies and gentlemen,
Nuclear technology is helping us in the field of agricultural development and diagnosis and treatment of many diseases including cancer. Our government also realizes that the availability of electricity has to be increased rapidly for facilitating achievement of goals of socio-economic development of the country. The government is committed to achieve "Universal Electrification" by 2021. Due to lack of indigenous energy resources, nuclear energy is considered as a key constituent to our energy mix in our Policy Document. Implementation of the nuclear power project has been identified to be a viable option for Bangladesh. Our government has already taken initiatives to implement Rooppur Nuclear Power Project for generation of 2000 MW (e) by 2020 and addition of another 2000 MW (e) by 2030.
In fact it is our long cherished dream to implement the NPP at Rooppur. Our Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman took initiative to implement the project in the early 70s. But his untimely demise put an end to our dream. Now under the leadership of Hon'ble Prime Minister, daughter of our father of the nation, Sheikh Hasina we have revived our dream and our government is committed to implement RNPP as soon as possible. The National Parliament also passed a resolution to implement the project. In this regard I like to mention that we have already selected the vendor country. We hope we would be able to finalize all necessary agreements with the vendor country within a very short time. We wish that the FNCA would stand by us in this initiative.
In the development and uses of nuclear energy Bangladesh is giving the highest priority on radiological protection, safety and security issues. Necessary engineering survey and environmental studies of Rooppur NPP have been initiated. The feasibility studies for the first NPP is currently carried out and we are committed to maximize the requirements for safety issues with modern and proven technology. Law has been enacted in order to establish independent regulatory authority and necessary infrastructure is being developed in this regard.
Ladies and gentlemen,
Just three significant accidents in the history of nuclear power are not an attestation of nuclear energy being unsafe and unreliable. It has been learned from the past nuclear accident scenarios that inadequate technology, human errors and unsafe site condition were the reasons for those incidents/accidents. The first two risk factors have already been eliminated through improving the safety features of nuclear reactors. However, to address the question of safety and security which has always been considered paramount and to allay the concerns of member states, immediate but proactive measures are warranted. The past nuclear accidents undoubtedly once again reiterate the importance of universal adherence to and effective implementation of relevant international instruments on nuclear safety and of improvement of the international legal framework in this area.
Ladies and gentlemen,
Here I want to reiterate that the FNCA is a unique forum that includes both advanced and inexperienced countries in relation to nuclear power technology. This forum has countries that have experiences as vendor of NPPs as well as technology transferees. The FNCA has member countries having a huge population covering a significant part of the Asian region. Uniquely, most of these member countries do have shortages of electricity and energy. In this situation, they may have a positive influence on the global nuclear power generation scenario. Some of these countries may be considered as the most potential newcomers/embarking countries in using nuclear technology for their power generation. This criterion gives this forum a different dimension where these experienced countries can be benefitted from sharing/transferring technology to the newcomer countries. The mutual cooperation between the countries can expand the research and development of nuclear technology as well as ensure best utilization of this technology. As technologically advanced countries, some of the countries may take the leading role in nuclear safety issues.
Bangladesh recognizes the need for a strengthened system of national and regional emergency preparedness and response as well as for strengthened cooperation among national regulatory authorities and relevant national and regional organizations. Enhanced information sharing, transparency and exchange of best practices among the FNCA Member States in cases of nuclear emergency, as well as of further promoting and expanding the scope for strengthening nuclear emergency preparedness and response mechanism in the regional scale.
Ladies and gentlemen,
It is an undeniable fact that Nuclear Energy has been faithfully serving the humanity from its inception and it will continue to do so in the days to come. Mere fear of risk cannot undermine its contributions. Rather we like to conquer the fear by taking lesson from the past accidents and attain the state of fearlessness in the journey with nuclear technology.
Ladies and gentlemen,
We consider the FNCA is a powerful tool to promote and coordinate research and development activities to answer national problems through utilizing the experience, expertise and resources available within the region. Bangladesh has been an active member of the forum and has participated in almost all the programs. Bangladesh is confident that FNCA would continue to promote regional capabilities and expertise, in different thematic areas like health, agriculture, industry and environment, research reactor and radioactive waste management and radiation protection.
I thank all of you for your kind attention.
Country Report of China
Mr. CHEN Qiufa
China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA)
Respected Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,
I am greatly honored to be invited to present at the 13th FNCA Ministerial Meeting. First of all, please allow me, on behalf of the Chinese delegation, to extend my sincere thanks again to the host country for its meticulous organization and considerate arrangement.
This meeting provides us an opportunity to know about the status quo of nuclear energy development in member states, and a platform to strengthen regional cooperation and exchange in this regard. Hereunder I would like to present to you the latest policies and situation of nuclear power development in China from four aspects.
I. Paying More Attention to Nuclear Safety
The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March of 2011 had once again aroused great concern and deep introspection on nuclear safety. After the accident, the Chinese government immediately organized a thorough safety inspection on all nuclear facilities. The results showed that all nuclear facilities in China are safe. The Chinese government has always attached great importance to nuclear safety, and pursued the general requirements of ensuring the environment safety, public health and harmonious society. The principle of "safety first" has been adhered to in the whole nuclear industry from nuclear power planning, construction, operation through decommissioning, and in all related industries. China's nuclear power has maintained a good safety record thanks to the continues efforts made to strengthen the capability building in nuclear safety and emergency response, to adopt nuclear safety regulations and standards in line with the international general practice, and to reinforce safety regulatory staff.
II. Maintaining Rational Development Pace
The Chinese government has always adhered to the principle of "safe and efficient development of nuclear energy" and regarded nuclear energy as an important option to improve the energy mix and achieve the sustainable development. The Fukushima accident has never shaken the government's resolution and confidence in nuclear power. At present, there are 15 nuclear power units in operation in the mainland of China, with a total installed capacity of 12.53 GWe, and another 26 under construction, with a total installed capacity of 29.24 GWe. China has the biggest scale of nuclear new builds in the world. The number of units under construction account for 40% of the world total. The Nuclear Safety Plan and the Medium- and Long-term Nuclear Power Development Program, which was passed in the standing meeting of the State Council on October 24, 2012, further makes clear the objectives and tasks for the next stage of nuclear power development in China. China will Keep the development pace rationally, raise the access threshold for new builds, and adopt the most advanced proven technologies to advance nuclear power construction steadily and orderly.
III. Reinforcing the Foundation of Nuclear Energy Development
Scientific and technological innovation is the endless momentum for nuclear power development. Thanks to the unremitting efforts made by our nuclear scientists in scientific R&Ds, great achievements have been made in basic nuclear researches and the development of advanced nuclear power technologies. On the basis of summarizing our own experiences and making reference to foreign proven technologies, we have independently developed our own advanced PWR technologies meeting the safety, technical and economic indicators of the third generation technology. China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR), geared towards the fourth generation nuclear power technologies, was connected to the grid. Breakthroughs have also been made in R&Ds on advanced nuclear fuel cycle. To further promote the sustainable development of nuclear power, the Chinese government has reinforced the talent cultivation and reserve. A large number of professional and management personnel have been trained by ways of higher education, on-the-job training by enterprises and scientific research institutes, etc. We are glad to see that the quality and quantity of qualified personnel have been greatly increased, and our nuclear power industry has been in the ascendant.
IV. Continuously Deepening International Cooperation
As a major player and beneficiary of international nuclear energy cooperation, China has always insisted on the principle of "mutual benefits and win-win cooperation" to continuously broaden and deepen the bilateral and multilateral nuclear cooperation. In February 2011, China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) established the Coordinating Committee for International Cooperation, with an aim to strengthen exchanges and cooperation with international organizations such as the IAEA and Asia-Pacific countries. Jointly initiated by the Chinese and US leaders, the proposal of the Sino-US Nuclear Security Demonstration Center was approved by the State Council in August 2012. The center will be dedicated to the R&Ds, exchanges and training on nuclear security technologies in the Asian and Pacific region to make its due contributions to upgrading the nuclear security level in this region. In April 2012, China held the 34th Meeting of National RCA Representatives and the 40th Anniversary of RCA Exhibition successfully. Under the framework of FNCA, China will continue deepen international cooperation, so as to make its due contributions to nuclear energy development in this region.
Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen,
FNCA has passed 13 years of splendid journey. In retrospect, with mutual trust and assistance, we actively carried out exchanges and cooperation centering around the demands of member states, and made great contributions to the economic and social development in the Asian region. Looking into the future, Asia will be the most active region in the world for nuclear power development, which is full of vitality and prospect. Therefore, FNCA is promising and well worth doing. China is willing to share the achievements and experiences in nuclear energy and technology applications with other member states, and carry out pragmatic cooperation, in order to better serve the Asian people.
Thanks for your attention!
Country Report of Indonesia
The Hon. Prof. Dr. Gusti Muhammad HATTA
The State Minister for Research and Technology
The Ministry of Research and Technology
Excellencies, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen,
Indonesia as one of the emerging countries, is now holding the position as the world 3rd biggest democracy Country and the 17th largest economy. With the prediction by International Monetary Fund (IMF) that Indonesian GDP will growth up to 5.7 percent, within the period of 2011 - 2016 (Thiery Geiger, World Economic Forum, June 2011) - I really believe that together with the promising International partners; Indonesia will identify future promising collaborations for producing science, technology, and innovation (STI) products including the research development in Nuclear, Science and Technology (NST).
Quoting from our President's speech at the Auditorium Price Water House Coopers Building, New York just recently (26 September 2012) - Indonesia is now included in the eight (8) non-western economies in G-20, together with Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Turkey. These Countries are all considered as emerging powers, in addition to South Korea and China - which were previously announced as emerging Countries. This prominent status is certainly enhancing Indonesian confidence as a nation, to move forward in all sectors: political, economic, cultural and the science, technology and innovation (STI), specifically for NST development.
Excellencies, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen,
It is the fact that the role of science and technology is very important in achieving the goal for the development of a country. Numerous branches of basic science and technology can be implemented to support national development program and one of this is the nuclear. The contribution of nuclear technology have been proven in supporting our national development facing the global challenges nowadays. Through the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, utilization of nuclear technology are enhanced and monitored. As I have stated previously that the application of nuclear technology could give contributions to 'food, health, human resources development, and environment' - these fields indeed are supported our Ministry seventh research focus areas.
I would like to share this opportunity also to explaining more on the National Innovation System (or called SINas). SINas programs are divided into many activities, which have objectives to:
1. Coordinate the research institutions in terms of policy formulation and implementation of policies in the field of S&T (supply-push technology).
2. Promoting R&D results to be utilized for the advancement and welfare of the community.
3. Absorb the needs of the community (including the market) in order to direct the activities of R&D (demand-driven approach).
4. The Indonesian Science and Technology (S&T) Policy is conducted, in order to develop the motivation, provide stimulation and facilitation, as well as creating conducive conditions to the development of the National System of R&D and application of S&T, Five Deputy Ministers are responsible for assuring  The effectiveness of S&T Institution,  A strong S&T resources,  A reinforcement of the STI Network,  The relevance and high productivity of S&T, as well as  S&T Empowerment to suit the needs of society.
For agricultural research, nuclear technology plays important roles in plant breeding by gamma irradiation to improve plant genetics related to food crop productivity traits. This nuclear technique has significant advantages, particularly for breeding food crops that have difficulties in hybridization. Meanwhile, isotopic tracer techniques are very helpful for the study of land productivity related to water and nutrient use efficiency for a specific food crop. Indonesia has good facilities for doing research on the application of nuclear technology for agriculture.
With mutation techniques, Indonesia has successfully improved rice varieties toward positive attributes such as high yield, early maturity, insect and disease resistance, and with better quality and yield than the original parents. Up till now, Indonesia has released 20 rice mutant varieties - which are 10 % of the national total rice varieties. Three of them, i.e. Mira-1, Bestari and Inpari Sidenuk have been widely disseminated to all Provinces in Indonesia and they have significantly contributed to national rice production. Based on productivity,our mutant varieties are significantly better than national average.Our mutant varieties produce an average of 7.0 tones per hectare, compared to 5.01 tones per hectare of the average national rice production (National Statistic Agency, 2011). The mutant varieties have planted in an accumulated areas of more than 2,500,000 hectares since the year 2000, and have been distributed in 24 provinces from 33 provinces in Indonesia. Not only rice, Indonesia has also released some mutant varieties of important crops such as soybean (6 varieties), mungbean (1 variety), cotton (1 variety) and sorghum (to be launched 3 varieties). It is expected thatbythe end of 2013, we will release another new mutant rice variety, which originates from from Japanese rice Koshihikari crossed with Indonesian IR36.
Application of NST in Animal Husbandry. In addition, application of nuclear Science and Technology in the improvement of animal husbandry for the improvement of its productivity has also been achieved. The utilization of radioisotopes tracer techniques for supplementary feed formulation and following reproductive pattern to improve calving rate, as well as the utilization of gamma irradiation for animal radio-vaccine development, are already collaborated with other institution and also implemented to the end user in Indonesia.
Excellencies, honorable guests, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen,
NST Application in Health. Record on the application of nuclear technologies in the field of health has also been increased, which indicated by an increased in the number licensees on the utilization of nuclear facilities and practices in hospitals registered by the regulatory body in Indonesia. Development of nuclear technology in health is also indicated by the increased number of operational cooperation between National Nuclear Energy Agency and private sectors as the parties whom then will distribute radioisotopes and/or radiopharmaceuticals to the stakeholders through the hospitals where nuclear medicine has been practiced. The demand on radioisotopes products is also increased not only within the Indonesia nation, but also among the FNCA member countries, such as Bangladesh, japan, Korea, Vietnam, and others. Total required to fulfill this demand reaches up to 1,000 Curies, while the availability production of these radioisotopes in Indonesia, through the Research Reactor Network of the FNCA, at this moment is recorded only 200 Currie. There is an opportunity that by empowering the available research reactor and by enhancing networking with this Forum, the demand could be achieved.
Looking into Indonesia science and technology environment at present and its great role in regional cooperation, Indonesia is on the view that the synchronized programs amongst FNCA, and other regional cooperation, ie (i) the ASEAN Committee on Science and Technology (ASEAN COST) and (ii) IAEA - should be optimally utilized and identified.
In the future, the FNCA networking could be also expanded by involving state-owned companies, for example NST improvement in radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals productions could be considered as prospective regional products in Asia - which in its production, and the private companies could be involved. In addition, increase utilization of the research reactor with the support of improvement of the facilities, the infrastructure as well as the human resource development, among the member countries of the FNCA, can be one of the priority future FNCA programs.
Excellencies, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen,
Current challenges in the utilization of nuclear science and technologies (NST) is to maintain, to add the quantity of the qualified Human Resources which are specialized in NST. Indeed, without better and continuous explanation from NST stakeholders, the numbers of Indonesian NST-based human resources would be declined. However, this condition also stimulates other opportunities of cooperation with other International organization. HRD requirement and fulfillment has been shared through the Asian Nuclear Training and Education Program (ANTEP) of the FNCA.
With the good cooperation between BATAN and ANTEP, Indonesia is now able to promote an interaction with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Trieste Italy, for the development in physics and related subjects. In conjunction with this, the upcoming second workshops of ICTP will be conducted in Jakarta, in December 2012. The workshop will be directly attended by the Director of ICTP, Dr. Fernando Quevedo, and Indonesia will propose to become the regional future focal point for ICTP, as the hub for developing the Indonesian NST human resources.
In parallel to the improvement of nuclear science and its application, strengthening on the implementation of safety, security as well as safeguards is now becoming a major activity. The regulatory body for nuclear, BAPETEN, plays an important role in monitoring, controlling and managing nuclear regulation for its utilization, and hence application of nuclear technology results in the full benefit for public prosperity. This is an important issue since there are remained negative perception in the public for nuclear and its application, post TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, particularly when it comes to the application of nuclear as the source of electricity.
As it is possible to involve private sectors since the beginning of innovation process, the Ministry of Research and Technology, through its national Triple Helix program of Research and Development; is providing full support on the feasibility study conducted at the candidate site for NPP program in Indonesias a part of new and renewable energy programs.
With regard to Government's provision for Public Disclosure No. 14 2008, where continuous information is provided to the public; the development of public awareness and public concern on nuclear science and its application become a continuous program to be maintained, particularly in the dissemination of information of nuclear science and technology to the public. Though the application of nuclear science and technology have been widely known and understood, particularly in the field of food, health, environment, and industry, or in the fields of nuclear non-energy - and referring to survey results that I mentioned in my opening remarks, public information related to NST and NPP must be still continued and maintained, if Indonesian would really like to have NPP in the future.
I thank you very much for your attention.
Country Report of Japan
Dr. Shunsuke Kondo
Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC)
Ladies and gentlemen
It is a great pleasure for me to report you the current status of nuclear energy utilization in Japan.
Twenty months have passed since the severe accident that led to a large and prolonged release of radioactivity occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company struck by Great East-Japan Earthquake and the resulting tsunamis.
Taking this opportunity, I would like to offer my hearty thanks anew for the various supports from FNCA member countries since March 11, 2011.
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station achieved the cold shutdown states last December and the radioactive releases at the Station have been reduced to a negligible level from the viewpoint of radiation dose they bring about at the site boundary, though there remains a long way to go for completing the cleanup of the damaged units.
The radioactive releases from the plant caused radioactive contamination of the land around the plant and about 80,000 peoples are still requested to be out of hometown as the radiation level of their home is higher than 20 mSV/ year and about the same number of peoples have made choice to leave home from the fear of exposure to radiation, though the radiation level of their home is below 20 mSv/ year. Some of them are suffered from a psychological agony due to fear of radiation, separation of family, disruption of communities etc.
Designating 11 municipalities in the former restricted zone or planned evacuation zone as the "Special Decontamination Area", the Government is promoting decontamination of this area, focusing on the part of which radiation level is lower than 50 mSv per year, to reduce annual additional doses below 20mSv in two years in consultation with residents. In addition, the Government designated 104 municipalities that had contaminated areas of over 1 mSv/y of additional dose as the "Intensive Contamination Survey Area" and has financially supported each municipality to promote decontamination activities in this area.
The most difficult issues we are faced with at present are to reach agreement with municipalities on the site for temporary storage and interim storage facilities that store the radioactive waste from decontamination work and to find an appropriate way of decontaminating forests which cover more than 70 % of their area.
Japan is continuing to collect, document and share with the international community the data and information on the progress of decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and of decontamination activities.
In this connection, it is my pleasure to inform you that the preparation of "the Fukushima Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety" to be held in Fukushima Prefecture this coming December in co-sponsorship with the IAEA is moving steadily. We expect high-level participation in this Conference from as many member states and associated organizations as possible so as to share lessons and knowledge derived from the accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Station.
It is also my pleasure to report you that Japan established the Nuclear Regulation Authority on 19 September as a new independent regulatory organization that is responsible for "3S", namely Safety, security and safeguards.
Japan had been reviewing from scratch its national energy policy since September last year, building upon nation-wide discussions, aiming at the mid to long term energy mix that will be able to assure the public. As a result, the Energy and Environment Council of the Japanese Government formulated, on 14 September 2012, the "Innovative Strategy for Energy and the Environment".
The Council proposed in the Strategy that Japan should strive to maximize both renewable energy use and efficiency of energy use so as to reduce dependence on nuclear energy, while utilizing existing nuclear power stations as an important source of electricity once the NRA confirms their safety, though only two units are in operation at present.
The Council also proposed that Japan should continue to cooperate with the international community as a responsible country where this nuclear accident took place, taking fully into account the lessons learned from this accident, with a view to enhancing nuclear safety in peaceful uses of nuclear energy through the worldwide, and should offer its nuclear technologies of the highest standard in safety to those foreign countries which wish to utilize nuclear technologies of our country, taking into account the situation and the will of those countries.
The Cabinet decided on September 19, 2012 that it will implement future policies on energy and the environmental protection, taking into account of this Strategy, while having discussions in an appropriate manner with related local governments, the international community and others, and obtaining understanding of the Japanese public, by constantly reviewing and reexamining policies with flexibility.
As you know, radioactivity and radiation applications play important roles in both green innovation and life innovation, producing functional materials for high performance batteries, new plants that can absorb a larger amount of carbon dioxide than the existing ones, carbon neutral plastic and so on, on the one hand, and making it possible to diagnose diseases and cure cancers in the medical field, on the other, in addition to the roles in the promotion of basic sciences and productivity in various industries.
Japan has been firmly behind the FNCA activity in this field of radioactivity and radiation applications since its inception. Japan would like to do so in coming years, supporting the FNCA to take up challenging topics in the various fields of research reactor utilization, radioactivity and radiation applications for agriculture, medical care and industrial use, radioactive waste management etc. that are relevant to this region.
Japan sincerely hopes that the FNCA will continue to formulate various cooperative projects that will promote mutually beneficial cooperative activities among scientists and engineers who want to devote to the development of the welfare of the people in the region and will build lasting links among organization and peoples responsible for the research and development of nuclear energy in the region.
Meanwhile, many emerging countries around the world have seriously explored the use of nuclear energy as a measure to achieve energy security and to prevent global warming since the start of the twenty-first century. Needless to say, any country that utilizes nuclear energy should pursue continuous improvement in all areas related to nuclear safety, security and nonproliferation, adhering to relevant international standards. In the spirit of prospering together, however, Japan has provided its assistance to those countries planning to introduce nuclear power generation in developing infrastructure needed, supporting their effort of capacity building and the establishment of a necessary legal framework, in particular.
Recently Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network has been active in supporting foreign applicants who want to take nuclear training programs conducted in Japan and the Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security has been also active in sharing Japan's experience in peaceful and secure use of nuclear energy with countries that are preparing for the introduction of nuclear energy, by offering various training courses.
Japan highly appreciates the initiative of the FNCA to convene a series o the Expert Panel for information and best practices sharing towards greater understanding of issues in the introduction of nuclear energy. Responding to the interest of the FNCA member countries seeking the use of nuclear energy, Japan will contribute to this kind of Panel and other actions called for by the FNCA for information and best practices sharing, believing that it is Japan's duty to share lessons learned from the accident and pursue the highest level of nuclear safety in the region based on such lessons.
In conclusion, Japan will continue the safe use of nuclear energy, while pursuing a greener and healthier society. Japan will also continue to cooperate with the FNCA countries to advance the safe use of nuclear energy as well as the nuclear science and technology for social and economic development in each country, in the spirit of prospering together, saving a green Asia and protecting human lives.
I thank you for your kind attention.
Country Report of Kazakhstan
Dr. Shaiakhmet Bakievich SHIGANAKOV
Director, Science & Technical Development Department
Atomic Energy Agency
Kazakhstan from the moment of its foundation during last two decades is persistently carrying on policy in nuclear sphere determined to:
· Supporting nonproliferation regime
· Provision of nuclear and radiation safety
· Development of innovative nuclear technologies and their application.
The development of nuclear industry is of great importance for the Republic of Kazakhstan. At present time we have a good base for it:
· uranium industry from mining up to fuel production (National Company "Kazatomprom"),
· nuclear science and technology (National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, National Company "Park of Nuclear Technologies").
There is no nuclear power production yet but it is a matter of time.
Natural catastrophe and the accident on Fukushima NPP did not affect strongly the determination of our government to the develop nuclear power production, but the need to work out new complex approach to the development of this sector to avoid threats of global scale have forced us to continue study feasibility of the first nuclear power plant in Kazakhstan.
IAEA had supported the initiative of our President Nazarbaev of the deposition of International Fuel Bank on the territory of Kazakhstan. We have sufficient experience and technical opportunities to provide safety and security of such storage in accordance with international regulations. There were considered two places for the bank deposition: Ulba Metallurgical Enterprise (Ust-Kamenogorsk, EKP) and former Semipalatinsk test site. Finally Ulba Metallurgical Enterprise was chosen. Now this project is under the development.
This year was assigned for Kazakhstan by several important events. Agency of Atomic Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan was formed in accordance with Presidential Decree in May 2012. According to Cabinet Decree it is a central executive body, implementing guidance and regulation in the field of nuclear energy application, provision of nuclear and radiation safety, physical protection of nuclear materials and installations, nonproliferation and cross-sectoral coordination in atomic sphere. The first object of the Agency is the formation of the state policy in the field of nuclear energy application and the provision of the implementation of its main directions.
Agency was formed on the basis of Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee and Department of Nuclear Energy of Ministry of Industry and New Technologies. Now the situation in the governing of nuclear related organizations is as follows: National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan was divided in three independent Republican State Enterprises National Nuclear Center, Institute of Nuclear Physics and Institute of Geophysics and they are under the government of Agency for Atomic Energy as well as Park of Nuclear Technologies; NAC "Kazatomprom" is a part of Sovereign Wealth Fund ≪Samruk-Kazyna≫ and supervised by the Agency.
International Conference "From nuclear test ban to nuclear free world" took place at the end of August in Astana. The participants of the conference were IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, First Deputy Minister of Energy US Daniel Poneman, mayor of Nagasaki Tomichisa Taue, Executive Secretary of CTBTO Tibor Tott and many other distinguished people from 80 countries. There were considered problems of global security, nuclear terrorism, handling of rigid sanctions against aggression, development of peaceful application of nuclear energy.
There were three more International Conferences:
· VII International Conference "Monitoring of Nuclear Tests and their Consequences";
· V International Conference "Semipalatinsk Test Site. Radiation Heritage and the Prospects of Development"
· International Conference of young scientists and specialists ≪Current issues on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy≫, dedicated to the 20th anniversary of NNC RК and the 55th anniversary of INP NC RK. More than a hundred of young specialists from 10 countries have participated in the conference. This conference was organized for the first time but it is supposed to make it annual.
This year specialists of our country have been carrying on big activity in the frames of FNCA projects. Two specialists are on training according to MEXT program.
FNCA Workshop "Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers" which was held in Almaty at the beginning of October had attracted a great interest from our specialists.
Kazakhstan will continue its policy for the development of peaceful application of nuclear energy and international collaboration in nuclear sphere.
Country Report of Republic of Korea
Yang, Sung-Kwang Ph.D
Assistant Minister for Research and Development policy
Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST)
Honorable Chair and distinguished delegates,
It is a great honor and privilege to address the 13th FNCA Ministerial level Meeting.
On behalf of the Korean government,
I'd like to express my sincere gratitude to Honourable Executive Mr. Gusti Muhammad Hatta, Honourable Mr. Haku Shinkun, and the delegation of Indonesia for their utmost endeavors in organizing this meeting.
[Global Nuclear Status After Fukushima Accident]
In the wake of the Fukushima accident,
the world has exerted strenuous efforts to devise safer and more sustainable ways for the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Notwithstanding growing concerns over the safety of nuclear power plants, nuclear energy still remains one of the most viable options to tackle the issues such as the dramatic increase in world energy demand, carbon dioxide emission, and the depletion of fossil fuels.
[Achievements and Status of Nuclear Energy in Korea]
Nuclear energy has become one of the major driving forces for national economic growth in Korea, and Korea continues to pursue a policy of peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Currently, in Korea, there are twenty-three nuclear reactors in operation and five reactors under construction.
Nuclear power supplies about 30 percent of the nation's total electricity needs.
In addition, in order to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, Korea has been actively investing in R&D activities such as development of SMART, a small and medium-sized reactor for multi-purpose use, R&D on a closed nuclear fuel cycle system, and future nuclear power systems.
Our earnest commitment yielded a fruitful outcome in July when Korea obtained the Standard Design Approval for SMART, which was designed for cogeneration of electricity and desalinated seawater. Its feasibility for domestic construction is now being verified, mainly led by KAERI with a consortium of private companies.
I hope that Korea's development experience in SMART will be of great use to FNCA member countries in the future.
Honorable Chair and distinguished delegates,
Application of radiation technology has drawn new attention as a way to promote human welfare in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and environment.
It is well recognized that FNCA has endeavored to encourage the promotion of radiation technology by implementing joint research projects on mutation breeding, biofertilizer, and establishing regional network for securing radioisotopes supply.
Korea is developing the world's first superconducting cyclotron in a Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator for treatment of intractable cancers.
Moreover, a project to build a research reactor exclusively used for radioisotope production will be embarked upon this year and is scheduled to be completed by 2016.
We expect that it will solve the worldwide supply shortage of medical isotopes.
[Korea's Efforts for Enhancement of Nuclear Safety and Security]
In the aftermath of the Fukushima accident, the international community has spared no effort to enhance nuclear safety in the best possible way.
In response to the accident,
Korea is implementing fifty action items for short and long term safety improvement based on a special safety inspection of all operating nuclear power plants, and we are also taking follow-up actions in line with the recommendations by the IAEA IRRS mission.
Moreover, Korea contributed to the international collaboration efforts to enhance nuclear security and non-proliferation by adopting the Seoul Communique at the 2nd Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul this March.
[Enhancement of Nuclear International Cooperation]
Cooperation and coordinated efforts are the very keys to promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Keeping this in mind, Korea is working hard to strengthen both bilateral and regional cooperation.
Currently, Korea is participating in 10 FNCA projectsand playing a leading role in RCA activities,and carrying forward various projects with countries in the Asia and Pacific region.
Furthermore, Korea has signed the Agreement on Atomic Energy Cooperation with 26 countries so far, holds joint committee meetings on nuclear energy on a regular basis to strengthen bilateral nuclear cooperation, hosted a nuclear cooperative workshop between Korea and Mongolia, conducted a projet to build a cyclotron center in Vietnam, and participated in a research reactor upgrade project in Malaysia.
In addition, Korea will continue to exert efforts to provide high-quality education and training programs to FNCA member countries through the Nuclear Education and Training Information Center launched in March this year.
Honorable Chair and distinguished delegates,
Korea, as a devoted member of the Forum, will fulfill its role and responsibility in FNCA activities, firmly believing that the FNCA will continuously contribute to the promotion of peaceful use of nuclear energy and international cooperation.
Concluding my remarks,
I would like to wish a very successful meeting for all of us.
Country Report of Malaysia
Dr. Maximus Johnity ONGKILI
Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI)
Your Excellencies and Distinguished Delegates
Ladies and Gentlemen,
1. I am delighted to be at this 13thFNCA Ministerial Meeting in Jakarta, Indonesia. Allow me to thank the Ministry of Research and Technology and National Nuclear Energy Agency of the Republic of Indonesia, as well as the Cabinet Office of Japan and Japan Atomic Energy Commission for making our presence here possible, for their hospitality and excellent organisation of this meeting.
2. Malaysia conveys its compliments to the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), for its continuous support and good relationship towards implementing FNCA activities in Malaysia. This mutual respect and cooperation is crucial in ensuring successful achievements of FNCA activities for future cooperation.
National Energy Policy
3. Malaysia is currently undergoing its Economic Transformation Programme or ETP. In tandem with Malaysia's projected economic growth rate as outlined in the ETP for our nation to become a high income economy country by 2020, electricity peak demand is projected to grow by about 3.4 % per annum, reaching 20,900 MW in year 2020. Based on this scenario, additional generation capacity of about 11,000 MW will be required by 2020, taking into consideration the demand growth as well as plant retirements during the period.
4. Fossil fuels are here to stay for the foreseeable future. The issue with fossil fuels like oil, gas and coal, is not only conservation, but also the supply and price volatility. Thus, fossil fuels pose a challenge to energy security, especially for developing countries which are non-producing. Even for producing countries like Malaysia, it poses a challenge because of our depleting oil and gas reserves.
5. Therefore, we need to look into diversifying our energy mix to ensure security of supply. Countries around the world are looking at the whole energy scenario in a different light and they have come to realise the importance of alternative energy sources, especially clean energy. There is an urgent need for the utilization of clean and renewable energy to diversify our fuel sources and depart from the current heavy reliance on fossil fuels.
6. In this regard, we proposed to have various projects related to energy under our ETP, particularly in intensifying oil and gas exploration activities, enhancing depleted fields recovery, developing marginal fields, increasing gas imports, improving energy efficiency, increasing renewable energy generation and building capacity for the nuclear option. The consideration for nuclear option is closely linked to the projected national energy demand and supply situation in Malaysia.
7. To ensure a comprehensive development of power and non-power applications of nuclear technology, Malaysia strongly believes that human capital development is the important aspect in the overall planning and preparation, especially for a new comer country for nuclear power. In this regard, Malaysia is in the opinion that the Japanese leadership in NPP and Non-NPP through the FNCA is very much appreciated and need to be continued.
8.Member countries benefitted a lot, especially for newcomer countries with an objective to prepare the infrastructure for NPP, where, through FNCA, early planning and capacity development could be achieved. Without FNCA, all these needs are to come through individual government funding and employing consultants, and so forth, which will entail much higher cost.
9. Member countries can get support from the IAEA as well. However, due to high competition and budget constraints, IAEA may not able to fulfil the countries' full scope requirements. As we are aware, the upfront cost for the newcomer countries are high and difficult to justify in the environment where NPP decision is uncertain or yet to be made.
10. The existence of FNCA activities has successfully fill up the gap for the newcomer countries, much complimenting the IAEA, and to a certain extent, (e.g. Human Resource Development), is very much exceeding the normal scope covered by the IAEA. Malaysia recognises the excellent achievements in HRD project, particularly Instructor Training Course and Follow-up Training Programme, where the fundamental knowledge in nuclear reactor engineering, environmental radioactivity monitoring, and nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness are acquired with multiple effects and outcomes.
11. Lastly, the availability of plant visits, field activities, forum for discussions, R&D projects, for example, all added value to the enhancement of nuclear technology in general, and capacity building for NPP in particular.
12. Malaysia will continue to demonstrate our commitment to FNCA activities. The implementation of FNCA projects will respond to relevant developmental priorities in our country and foster our self-reliance in the sustainable application of nuclear techniques, resource mobilisation and partnerships building, enhanced regional collaboration and cooperation, leading to greater recognition of the FNCA as a partner in our development programme.
13. Malaysia will also continue to contribute to promote practical applications in the remarkable outcomes of the FNCA projects to the end user, by strengthening cooperation and linkages with relevant governmental and private sectors, as well as enhancing information dissemination to end-users.
14. After 13 years of the FNCA, I think it is time to re-define the future role of FNCA. Looking ahead there is a need to re-position nuclear technology especially after Fukushima and the lessons learnt from the incident. It is a sad event, but no one can predict nature. The desire for, and popularity of, nuclear energy as a source of energy surely and certainly has taken a backseat, affecting all of us. We need to highlight the plus points of nuclear technology for its continued relevance and acceptance to the public.
15. FNCA 2.0 should look at:
a. Latest technology which is cheap and safe;
b. building an Open Innovation Platform with respect to databases including application for predictive models of risk management espousing also for environment safety; and
c. concentrating on the application of nuclear science for socio-economic issues, especially the relevance of nuclear science to solving everyday problems
16. Malaysia hopes that the FNCA will uphold the current high standards of these platforms and continue to support the nuclear activities both in power and non-power applications to all member countries.
17. In conclusion, I would like to express our sincere gratitude once again to the Ministry of Research and Technology and National Nuclear Energy Agency of the Republic of Indonesia, as well as the Cabinet Office of Japan and Japan Atomic Energy Commission, for their tremendous effort in successfully holding this event. Let me assure you once again that Malaysia vows its continuous support and commitment to ensure the success of the regional nuclear cooperation under the FNCA framework.
Country Report of Mongolia
Prof. Dr. Manlaijav GUN-AAJAV
Director, Nuclear and Radiation Regulatory Authority
Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)
Ladies and Gentlemen,
On behalf of the Government of Mongolia and Mongolian delegation I would like to express our sincere appreciation to the Government of Japan and Government of Indonesia for warm hospitality and excellent organization of this meeting.
It is a great honor and pleasure for me to represent my country in the 13th Ministerial Level Meeting of Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Mongolia believes that nuclear technology application for civilian uses is one of the important aspects of the industry that effectively contributes to the development of a country. It is the area where developing countries benefit the most and it is where the nuclear technology touches the ordinary people. Therefore, our delegation on behalf of Government of Mongolia expresses its full support for FNCA's goal to fully modernize the nuclear applications and the efforts put towards this goal by Governments of the member countries, especially Government of Japan.
Given its uranium resources, Mongolia is planning to exploit this resource to help realizing the national development goals by means of providing financial support to the economy thus empowering us to face any economical and developmental challenges efficiently. Mongolia is well aware that exploitation of uranium would pose a number of challenges, including ensuring physical security of nuclear materials at all stages, implementing international and national safety standards throughout all operational phases, improving knowledge based public awareness and acceptance and others.
Hence, increased emphasis has to be placed on strengthening the legal framework, as well as standardizing safety and security regulations. In addition, it is crucial for us to train adequate human resources and build capacity so as to be prepared for future developments and sustainability of nuclear programs.
One of the first steps to be taken by Mongolia in developing its nuclear program is to learn from the best practices and experiences of other countries, especially those that are successful in these fields. . In this respect we hope to continue working closely with FNCA and its member countries, whose expert advices and mutual cooperations are always welcome.
As the issues of safety and security are important for all countries, especially for those pursuing nuclear power programs or other peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Mongolia is interested in working closely with the FNCA and its member states to strengthen regional and international cooperation.
Mongolia is a developing country with ample natural resources but with limited infrastructure, human resources, who is striving to build stronger and safer nuclear technology industry. In achieving the best possible results in timely manner, your kind support and assistance is crucial and necessary for our country as well as for our organization. Therefore we would like continue our close cooperation with the FNCA and with Member Countries in capacity building, development of skilled and experienced human resources and establishing infrastructures necessary for nuclear activities.
In February 2011 we established Steering Committee with HRD center of JAEA and cooperating actively in the field of training of Mongolian in Japan. In August 2011 and September 2012 in cooperation with Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security of JAEA we organized the seminar on peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation.
As we all know, the peaceful use of nuclear energy in fields such as medicine, agriculture and industry is extremely important for social and economic development of the international community. I would like to take this opportunity to thank the FNCA for the role it has been playing in promoting the transfer of nuclear knowledge, science and technology to its members, including Mongolia.
Thank you for your attention.
Country Report of Philippines
Hon. Dr. Carol M. Yorobe
Department of Science and Technology
Your Excellencies, Distinguished Delegates,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
I am very much honored by the kind invitation the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of Japan extended to me to participate in the 13th Ministerial Level Meeting of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA). On behalf of the Philippine Government, my delegation commends the Japanese Government for its unwavering support for FNCA as a dynamic forum for sustainable development in the region, despite the trials and difficulties brought about by the Fukushima nuclear accident on the Government and the Japanese people. Such steadfastness from our Japanese counterparts inspires us to exert our utmost in working for the FNCA vision. As this is my first time to attend this Meeting, I come with the expectation that the Meeting will allow me to appreciate more fully the role of FNCA in furthering the applications of nuclear science and technology for the socio-economic development of the FNCA member countries.
As embodied in his social contract with the Filipino people, President Benigno Aquino III and his administration are committed to achieve inclusive and sustained economic growth that should bring a sizable slice of the population out of poverty. The Philippines continues to look at sustaining economic growth and improving the lives of Filipinos as the primary national development. The Department of Science and Technology is tasked to harness science and technology, including nuclear science and technology, as prime movers or engines for economic growth and development.
The Department of Science and Technology has a successful experience in empowering the small and medium scale enterprises under the Small Enterprises Technology Upgrading Program or SETUP. This is a strategy to enhance productivity and competitiveness of MSMEs through infusion of appropriate technology, training and technical assistance, product standards and testing, and assistance for technology acquisition. The DOST believes in developing local technologies to solve national problems, creating growth in the countryside through the technology-assisted SMEs, and improving industry competitiveness.
Nuclear technology is a powerful, multidisciplinary and enabling technology that finds many applications in agricultural productivity, food security and safety, environmental management, health and welfare and industrial competitiveness. We are pleased in our participation in the FNCA projects because these support our efforts for nuclear technology to find its niche in our overall S & T efforts in national development. We will build on our expertise gained in the radiation processing of carrageenan and chitosan to develop products from other natural polymers abundant in the country. Our results in the radiation sterilization of our local biofertilizer, Bio-N, show a more effective and cheaper alternative to heat autoclaving. Mutation breeding is a mainstay in our effort to increase crop production for an ever increasing population. The Philippines is participating in the new FNCA project on establishing a Research Reactor Network which will hopefully address the need for medical radioisotopes as well as radioisotopes for industry and agriculture considering the increasing difficulty in transporting radioactive sources such as Co-60 for irradiation facilities. Further, it will support the Philippine project of localizing the production of 99mTechnetium generator.
Indeed, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident brought far-reaching impact worldwide. The accident can be turned into opportunities for learning lessons to enhance nuclear safety for the benefit of countries with existing nuclear programs and for countries embarking on NPP in the Asian region. Asia is considered now to be the most actively engaged region in nuclear power. The nuclear power states in Asia, except Japan, are enhancing their nuclear programs while newcomer States are seriously considering nuclear power as part of their energy mix. We hope that the set back in Japan's nuclear program is just temporary. Nevertheless, the Government of Japan has instituted a major reorganization in its nuclear infrastructure, thereby strengthening nuclear safety in great measures. On 19 September the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Japan was created under the Ministry of Environment.
Our stand on nuclear power has not changed. We are taking the necessary technical studies and based on the results of these studies, we are formulating recommendations and options from which a national position may be made. Towards this end, we pursue our work in the following priority areas: 1) appropriate energy scenarios for the country 2) establishment of a separate and independent nuclear regulatory body 3) human resources development, 3) and stakeholders' 'involvement. Restoring public confidence in the safety of nuclear power is of strategic importance. We are pleased to note that this important concern has become part of the IAEA Plan of Action on Nuclear Safety. To achieve this end, a global effort is imperative, and in our region, though the FNCA and other regional groupings.
It is our expectation that the FNCA would be a venue for activities that would support our needs in this regard. This would include activities that would permit sharing of knowledge of effective management of natural hazards and lessons learned from the Fukushima accident, the establishment of the necessary infrastructure for nuclear safety, and human resource development.
Towards the development of human resource to support a nuclear power program, the Nuclear Training Center of PNRI has conducted basic training modules on nuclear engineering and nuclear power for scientists and engineers of the Institute, the National Power Corporation, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the University of the Philippines and augmenting these courses with those offered by the IAEA, the Republic of Korea and Japan. At this point, allow me to mention the training opportunities made available through our collaboration with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and the Japan University Network for Global Nuclear Human Resource Development (JUNET-GNHRD). Within the framework of a Memorandum of Agreement with the JAEA, the first two-week Reactor Engineering Course: Level 1 was conducted for PNRI scientists. The resource persons were JAEA experts and PNRI personnel who trained in Japan. The success of this course will enable us to extend the course to participants outside of the Institute and thus jumpstart the establishment of a reactor engineering training program in the Philippines as part of the national action plan on capacity building.
Philippine participation in the FNCA projects have allowed us to enhance our efforts in the various fields of application of nuclear science and technology. It is our deep conviction that the utilization of nuclear science and technology for national development should continue to be expanded. It is also our deep conviction that the FNCA is a strong and effective mechanism for regional cooperation in nuclear science and technology and will even be a stronger one in the succeeding years.
In closing, allow me to affirm the Philippine commitment to the FNCA through its active participation in its projects and activities including the hosting of meetings. My wishes for a successful Meeting!
Country Report of Thailand
Mr. Nirut KUNNAWAT
Advisor to the Minister of Science and Technology
Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST)
Ladies and Gentlemen,
It is my pleasure to be here at the Ministerial Meeting of the Thirteenth Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA). On behalf of the Royal Thai Government, I would very much like to thank the Government of Indonesia for organizing such an important meeting.
As a State Party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and other relevant multilateral conventions, an active member of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), and Depositary State of the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapons-Free Zone Treaty (SEANWFZ), Thailand attaches importance to cooperation on the application of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes in order to support sustainable development.
To ensure that the peaceful uses of nuclear technology are being developed in a manner consistent with the NPT and other relevant multilateral conventions, Thailand supports strengthening the role of the IAEA in enhancing the global nuclear safety framework, safety standards, and emergency preparedness and response.
Today, the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP), which is the nation's regulating authority for the usage of radiation and nuclear materials and devices, has revised and founded its own regulations and procedures on usage permission.
The development of such activities as conducting the examination and granting of licenses for the Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) and for the Research Reactor Operator indicates the practice will be examined and qualified in the future.
In addition, legislations involving nuclear technology are also being reviewed and revised. The laws such as liability and emergency preparation are also being considered. The regulatory document and framework on nuclear power are being studied. This is in order to have greater convergence with relevant international standards on this important issue.
National Nuclear Technology emphasizes on nuclear applications in various fields in order to promote better living standards and quality of life of the people.
The first field is on "Health". Our hospitals all over the country use gamma-ray for medical treatment on cancer and apply radioisotopes for medical treatments and diagnosis.
The second field is on "Food". Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology utilizes gamma-ray for pest control on the exported fresh fruits such as mango, rambutan, mangosteen, longan and lychee to the United States of America. This application is an important part of Thailand's strategy of becoming a "Kitchen to the World". We need to ensure availability of safe food for export to the world market as well as help promote food security which is an important priority of this Government.
The third one is on "Agriculture". We have success stories on "Biofertilizer" and radiation utilization development project on the "Super Water Absorbent" as well as "Plant Growth Promoter". I would like to elaborate in more details on these issues.
- "Biofertilizer", by which the application of nuclear technology is used as a useful and safe method for the sterilization of the carriers, leads to the extension use of biofertilizers in the environmental-friendly agriculture throughout the region.
- "Super Water Absorbent" which was synthesized from cassava starch and acrylic acid. The trees with the super water absorbent were able to yield the bamboo shoots, even during the drought in summer, resulting in extra income for the farmer.
- "Plant Growth Promoter" from the chitosan irradiated with gamma radiation to reduce the molecular weight and increase yield of oligo-chitosan. After the positive results of field test, the chitosan is now being produced in large quantity by irradiating commercially available chitosan.
The fourth nuclear application is on radiated gemstones, (most notably, blue topaz) that have been irradiated in a nuclear reactor or accelerator to enhance the stones' color. This application should also reinforce Thailand's role as one of the regional and global centres for the gems and jewelry industry.
New initiative on Nuclear Technology
Climate change causes many disasters including drought and flood. Hydro and Agro Informatics Institute, Thailand, in cooperation with IAEA is developing a project on "Use of Isotope Hydrology for Groundwater Resources Management" for flood control and management in the Chao Phraya Basin.
Nuclear Power Plant
As for the national nuclear power programme, Thailand seeks to ensure that our safety measures comply with the IAEA's standards. Following the unfortunate Fukushima incident last year, our Government has postponed the decision to build a nuclear power plant for a few years. Meanwhile, Thailand has developed many curricula for children and the youth to enhance public awareness and promote better understanding of nuclear technology.
ASEAN and Beyond
Looking at the region of Southeast Asia, as ASEAN Community moves towards becoming a Community by 2015, the region will also have to develop closer cooperation on nuclear related issues. This is because accidents in nuclear facilities in one country will have inevitable impact on others. Furthermore, the enhanced connectivity amongst ASEAN Member States may also create downside risks, such as illegal movements of nuclear-related materials and technology.
That is why Thailand has proposed establishing a network of nuclear regulatory bodies in Southeast Asia, that would help promote cooperation on nuclear safety, complement safeguards based on international standards and help promote nuclear security by making our region safer from nuclear terrorism.
To conclude, let me reiterate Thailand's commitment to cooperation with Asia, the international community and the IAEA on the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. On our part, we are willing to share its experiences and best practices on nuclear technology for peaceful purposes with our friends. At the same time, we should see to it that peaceful uses of nuclear technology is also being undertaken in a manner that helps promote nuclear safety, safeguards and nuclear security, which benefits all nations, and consistent with the NPT and other relevant multilateral conventions.
As Asia becomes an increasingly important engine of the global economy, with ASEAN playing a rising role in it, it is becoming more important than ever to be able to use nuclear technology safely and effectively to promote growth and sustainable development in our region, while ensuring that our region is safe from the threat of nuclear accidents, nuclear terrorism and nuclear weapons. Indeed, the fruits of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes can only be truly enjoyed the shared ultimate objective of us all.
In closing, may I reiterate Thailand's full support for FNCA. I am confident that the cooperation among the FNCA countries as well as its synergy to other multilateral arrangements dealing with nuclear matters will contribute to the sustainable development in our region that is peaceful and stable. I also believe that with the goodwill and commitment of all parties gathered here, we can harness nuclear technology effectively to make a better life for all our peoples.
Thank you very much.
Country Report of Vietnam
Prof. Dr. Vuong Huu Tan
Vietnam Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (VARANS)
Your Excellencies, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen,
On behalf of the Delegation of Vietnam, firstly, I would like to sincerely thank the Cabinet Office of Japan (CAO), Japan Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Ministry of Science and Technology of Indonesia for the excellent arrangements and support for our presence in this important event.
I also wish to present our best compliments to distinguished Ministers, senior officials, and delegates from FNCA member countries.
Ladies and gentlemen,
The Fukushima nuclear accident has had a significant impact on nuclear energy policy in some countries. However, Vietnam has decided to continue its nuclear power program. Currently, Vietnam, in cooperation with Russia and Japan, has been conducting feasibility studies for Ninh Thuan 1 and Ninh Thuan 2 Nuclear Power Projects. With a view that "Nuclear safety and security must be ensured at the highest level", the Government of Vietnam has been actively preparing necessary conditions and will decide to start construction of these Nuclear Power Plants only when national infrastructure and human resources adequately developed according to the IAEA guidance and international experiences.
Public information on NP has been actively promoted in Vietnam. The PI Project on NP has been submitted to the Prime Minister for approval in this year. Last month, the International Exhibition and Seminar on Nuclear Power has been held in Hanoi with the participation of Russia, Japan, US, Korea, Canada, Ukraina, Indonesia and Thailand.
The national research and development program on nuclear energy for the period of 2011-2015 has been approved. Vietnam and Russia have signed the Agreement for the cooperation in establishing a Center for Nuclear Science and Technology in Vietnam in order to develop technical capacity of Vietnam in the nuclear field including nuclear power.
The national nuclear regulatory documents framework together with codes and standards have been being prepared in cooperation with the IAEA, EC, RCF, Russia, Japan, US and other countries. Vietnam has continued his commitments on nuclear security and safeguards by ratification of the Additional Protocol, signature of Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials in this year. Many workshops and training courses for staffs of the Nuclear Regulatory Body have been conducted in this year under assistance of international organizations and foreign countries. The research on revision of the Atomic Energy Law has been conducted in order to meet the international requirements for the nuclear regulatory body, nuclear safety inspection, nuclear emergency and response, and nuclear liability. Vietnam and Japan had a discussion on the ODA project for capacity building of the Nuclear Regulatory Body of Vietnam.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
With satisfaction, Viet Nam notes that the projects and activities under the FNCA framework have been being integrated into Viet Nam's nuclear energy program bringing significant contribution to the implementation of nuclear power projects and applications of radiation and radioisotopes in the country. Taking this opportunity, Vietnamese delegation reaffirms our full supports for the FNCA activities to promote and enhance the research, development and application of nuclear science and technology for the sake of peace and prosperity in the region and in the world.
I wish the 13rd FNCA Ministerial Meeting successful, all of you good health, great success and happiness.
Thank you for your attention.